Friday, 31 January 2014

Depression Symptoms And Its Timely Treatment

Depression
Sometimes in life we may come across some sort of sadness, or loneliness and face depression which may affect our life depending on the gravity of this emotion. Depression could be caused due to various reasons either with the sudden loss of a member of a family or friend, or an injury, or anything that can disrupt the normal working schedule of one’s life.

 One needs to be mentally strong in moments of chaos or disruptions which may occur in the life of an individual. What could be the symptoms of depression? Some of it could be difficulty in concentration, recalling details, making decisions, feeling of guilt, helplessness, hopelessness, loss of interest in any activity which otherwise was a pleasure to indulge in, irritability, restlessness, fatigue, persistent aches and pains and much more.

Many people are often driven to suicide due to depression and are not in a proper frame of mind to hold on to their sanity and save their lives and their peace of mind. Our news updates are often flashing news on suicide of many individuals especially the younger generation who have been following the easy way out of ending their lives caused by depression either due to failure in examination, or a failed relationship and many more reasons in life.

With proper guidance and counseling, we could strive to make our own limited contribution in bringing about sensible reasoning and avert the suicide act as and when we come across such instances in life.

Suicide acts are very painful especially for parents when they come across their child who has committed a suicide act without taking their parents into confidence over their depressed issues of life. Parents need to gain the confidence of their children by being friends to them wherein they can approach them without any hesitation or doubt over any problems of life they may be going through.

This can draw the children closer to them and help them to seek advice and support whenever it is needed which can go a long way off in helping to avert any suicide acts in the near future. Besides the parents which are the first help and support, we also have many local bodies that reach out to these depressed victims and help them in providing and teaching them to be part of the solutions to their problems thus rendering all the required support depending on the case of the depressed victim.

Counseling centers provide help by way of counseling and guiding the person in identifying the root of the problem and the solutions to it. With counseling, many have found a reason once again to live and start life afresh, putting the past far behind them.

If the system of depression affects the life or causes difficulties in relationships in family life or at work place, it is essential to seek help of a health counselor or a health care professional who can render help and guidance to the depressed victim. Self help is the best help and the depressed individual could also make efforts on their part to get out of the depressed state of mind and not plunge further into it.

Thursday, 30 January 2014

Insight on Anxiety Disorder – Post Traumatic Stress Disorder


Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
PTSD or Post Traumatic Stress Disorder is an anxiety disorder which may occur after one has gone through extreme emotional stress either in the case of an injury or loss of a person deeply attached to the patient. The genes, family settings as well as the emotions, play a very important role and past emotional events may also add up to the risk of post traumatic stress disorder in an individual. With this type of disorder, the body’s response to any stress, changes drastically. In normal situation, the body recovers after the stress has passed off.

The stress hormones and chemicals which the body releases at the time of stressful events return back to its normal level. In some cases when the person suffering from post traumatic stress disorder, the body keeps on releasing the stress chemicals and hormones which can occur at any stage of life.

It can occur due to an assault, natural disaster, domestic violence, or accident of any kind, rape, terrorist attack and even in case of war. Diagnosis of this disorder is based on the report of history and the result of a psychological event that has taken place wherein the health care provider gets to know about the symptoms and other related details like work experience, education and background of the person suffering from this disorder.


Though some of the traumatic events do cause distress, not all traumatic events are symptoms of PTSD. Individuals could talk about their feelings with family members, friends or relative should they encounter any symptoms which may not improve or cause any kind of distress and contact health care professional to eliminate this disorder at the earliest.

They could also get engaged in active participation in the treatment, following the instructions provided by the health care personnel, accept support from others, if any, exercise and maintain a healthy diet, Moreover they should ensure to avoid consumption of alcohol or drug which can aggravate this ailment further. The PTSD symptoms are of three types namely acute stress disorder, wherein the disorder occurs within four weeks of the event with the symptoms lasting for three months or less.

The second is Delayed onset PTSD where the symptoms tends to appear six months after the event and the third type is Chronic PTSD when the symptoms last for over three months. Besides this, other disorders that may accompany this ailment are depression, anxiety, or alcohol and drug abuse. The treatments for PTSD are in the various forms of psychotherapy which can be of immense help to the victim. CBT or Cognitive behavioral therapy helps the person to understand some techniques which can enable them to relax and restrain any form of anxiety.

Exposure therapy enables a systematic exposure which may involve someone related to the traumatic incident, thereby reducing the responses of fear under the guidance of a trained therapist. We also have the EMDR – Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing which involves presentation of various visuals and stimuli which may lead to release of emotional turmoil and free the person of all mental blockages occurred during the event. Besides this, treatment for PTSD patients involves talk therapy or counseling, medicine or at times it may involve both.

Wednesday, 29 January 2014

Peer Pressure

Types, Effects and Coping

Peer Pressure
Peers are a very powerful force in the life of a teenager. Youngsters, school going kids and teenagers are constantly building their self-image through their growing years and learn to adapt to different values, attitudes and behaviors. When they are influenced by a group of people of the same age group who encourage each other to change these set beliefs in order to be like others in the group through influence is called peer pressure.

Peer pressure classification occur under two headings which are spoken and unspoken pressure. Spoken pressure is the direct pressure forced upon by a person directly who asks the other to do certain things. When it comes to unspoken pressure, the individual comes under indirect pressure and chooses to do things when he sees other doing it. Any individual, who is under the influence of his or her peers, may or may not do it intentionally. Peer groups recognize certain groups and do not associate with other group activities they deem unfit for them. Most youngsters experience peer pressure due to the sole reason that they are unable to handle the maturity to handle it as they stay fixed in groups they may or may not choose. Young groups have a tendency to show negative behaviors towards those who don’t belong to their group. This makes an individual succumb to Peer pressure to be recognized, accepted and to feel belonged.

Negative peer pressure can make a teenager do various things that are deemed wrong such as shoplifting, drinking alcohol, use drugs, cheat at school, vandalize property, bully others, participate in racist or discriminatory behaviors and skip school. Direct negative peer pressure puts a person on the spotlight through direct confrontation which makes the person difficult to find an excuse to do the right thing. Indirect peer pressure is when a person feels pressurized to follow the crowd and be like everyone else – may it be the way they dress or act in certain ways. This is just to fit in and not feel left out or stand out as weird or different. Peer pressure affects kids gravely and this may cause indulgence in unsafe sexual behaviors, alcohol and drug abuse, eating disorder and smoking behaviors.

Peers can also be a positive influence on an individual. They encourage and can help make the person feel like he should, like, join a group or a cause because he is interested in it. There are other forms of peer pressure such as teasing, where someone makes fun of a person to try to get them to do something they don’t want to, or heavy peer pressure such as bullying when someone threatens a person physically or verbally in an attempt to make them do something they don’t want to.

Dealing with peer pressure is difficult and it might be tough to say no but it is possible. It is important to pay attention to one’s own feelings and beliefs about what is right and wrong. That is why inner strength and confidence can help a person stand tall, walk away and resist doing the wrong thing, especially when one knows better. It takes a lot of power to get out of peer pressure but it also makes great company to have friends and peers who support and encourage you rather than forcing you to do something you don’t want to or don’t believe in.

Friday, 24 January 2014

Mental Retardation

Types, Causes and Symptoms

Mental Retardation
Mental retardation is a condition in which a person’s ability to learn and function is limited than others of the same age group. The child may be considered a bit slow during infancy and the early years of childhood although the delays in development, language and motor skills may be apparent.

The emergence of this type of disorder is made only when the child faces problems with academic skills. Mental retardation is the condition that is diagnosed before the age of 18 years and includes below-average intellectual capacity and a lack of skills needed for everyday living.

Mental Retardation is nowadays termed as Intellectual Disability. There are various types such as Down’s syndrome, Phenylketonuria, Cretinism, Cranial Anomalies, Microcephaly and Hydrocephalus. Down’s syndrome is the most common form of mental retardation which is caused due to chromosomal anomalies. It is a genetic disorder and can affect anyone.

The physical characteristics of a person with Down’s syndrome is very visible such as almond shaped slanting eyes, thick skin on eyelids, flat and broad face and nose, large head and tongue, short neck, stubby fingers and speckled iris of the eyes. Phenylketonuria is a rare metabolic disorder where brain damage occurs along with moderate to severe intellectual functioning. In cretinism, the thyroid fails to develop and may occur due to birth injuries.

Cranial anomalies include macrocephaly, where there is an increase in size of head and brain; microcephaly, resulting from impaired brain development and failure to attain normal size; and hydrocephalus where damage occurs to the brain tissues and enlargement of the skull.

The degree of impairment from mental retardation varies from profoundly impaired to mild to borderline retardation. Some of the causes for this condition are present and occurs at or after birth. Most of them are chromosomal abnormalities while others are genetic abnormalities and inherited metabolic disorders. Some rare causes of mental retardation are nutritional in nature such as malnutrition; toxic in nature such as lead poisoning or exposure to drugs; trauma, such as head injury, etc.

The most common symptoms of mental disorder are continued infant-like behavior, decreased learning ability, failure to meet the markers of intellectual development, inability to meet educational demands at school, lack of curiosity, delays in achieving developmental, academic and social milestones, etc.

People with mild mental retardation develop social and communication skills during pre-school years and have limited impairment in sensorimotor skills. They are capable of achieving social and vocational skills required for minimal self-support but may need supervision, guidance and assistance.

In moderate mental retardation, people acquire basic communication skills but they profit from vocational training and moderate supervision for personal care. They can benefit from training in social and occupational skills but are unable to progress beyond second grade academics. They can perform unskilled work under supervision yet adapt well to community life in supervised settings.

Those with severe mental retardation acquire little or no communicative speech but may learn to talk and trained in self-care skills. Their academic skills are limited and may perform little tasks with supervision. Profound mental retardation is a neurological condition where there is slight impairment in sensorimotor functioning and development occurs with constant aid in a highly structured environment with continuous supervision and individualized relationship with a caregiver.

Tuesday, 21 January 2014

Marital Discord

Marital Discord: Causes and its effects on Children


Marital Discord
One of the most important primary groups in our society is the family. Thus, family and marriage are considered the pillars of our society and the two most important societal institutions. Marriages in India has always been sacred and once a couple enters into a bond of marriage, the relationship is considered to be perpetual – something one can understand better as “till death do them apart”. Marriage is an inbuilt system and the roles and priorities are pre-determined by society. There have always been strains and challenges for the Indian family but lately with the developing world, there has been a change in the trends of family functioning.

The fast changing and the changes in family environment has thrown new challenges, particular to the younger generation. There have been problems with regard to lifestyle, poor communication, instability, changing roles, changing attitudes and the stress of a fast life. There has been a clear margin in the decline in harmony which is associated with values that are clearly emphasized for individualistic, materialistic and self-oriented goals as compared to the traditional family well-being.

Marital discord is the inability to talk about differences in the marital relationships and to get to an agreement about managing these differences. Some of the common reasons for differences are finances, values, sex, child rearing, relationships with family members etc. this inability to manage issues may either lead to hostility such as arguing, physical violence, etc., or withdrawal such as spending less time together, affairs or getting over involved with work.

There can be various causes for the resultant marital discord between a husband and wife or within families. Finances are a common reason due to which couples argue with each other. Sexual intimacy can be a cause where a lack of intimacy may result in conflict and is a cause of divorce. A lack of balance in the household causes conflicts when there is an inability to manage responsibilities. Every person has an intimate friend, either of the same gender or the opposite.

It is important to know their intentions as very few many stand to help in the worst situations. Time apart friends may cause more issues for the person in their marital functioning. Sometimes, when there is no encouragement and support from the spouse, it lays an easy path for conflict and eventually leads to marital discord. Children too play an important role in marital functioning. There may be difficulties raising children with discipline and with regard to career planning for their children. But, this may also be the other way round where kids are affected gravely by parental discord.

Children may feel intensely loyal to both parents and they become aware of feelings of hostility between them. This creates internal dissonance for the child and they may feel stressed when either of the parents are under attack. Sometimes when marital discord occurs the parent may become emotionally closed and unexpressive and this may result in children experiencing extreme anxiety. Children may feel impotent when they witness hostility between parents.

Sometimes the opposite may occur – where children may feel they may be able to help and be a caretaker like cheering up the parents after the dust settles. The time and emotional energy required for caretaking may interfere with the child’s developmental and social tasks. The long term effects may include distrust in relationship, lack of belief in the institution of marriage, hostility, emotional disengagement, inability to deal with interpersonal situations, social isolation etc.

Sunday, 19 January 2014

Violence Against Women

Types, Effects, Risk Factors and Dealing with Violence

Violence Against Women
Violence against women is a major public mental and social problem and is a clear violation of human rights. Violence is any act targeted at a particular person of a particular gender, which results in extreme physical, mental or sexual harm or suffering to women and also includes forms of acts of threats, deprivation or coercion. With regard to women, the most common forms or types of abuse are intimate partner violence and sexual violence. Some other forms are human trafficking, stalking, violence against women at work, emotional abuse, dating violence, sexual assault, etc. Sometimes women are attacked by strangers but the truth is that most of the time they are hurt by people close to them.

Domestic and intimate partner violence is the behavior by an intimate partner that causes sexual, psychological and physical harm and includes physical aggression, controlling behaviors and abuse.Domestic violence includes physical abuse such as hitting, kicking or throwing things, emotional abuse such as yelling, threatening or controlling and sexual abuse such as forcing sexual acts against the will of the person. People of all educational levels, ages and races experience domestic abuse.

Sexual violence is an act attempted to obtain a sexual act and directed against a person sexually using coercion in any situation. It includes rape which is nonconsensual sex directed at a victim who is forced to engage in penetration. It also includes touching, incest, photographing a person in sexual situations and exposing a person’s body. It is always wrong and a person who is abused sexually is never the cause of the attack or situation.

There are numerous mental health effects of violence, especially when it is targeted at women and the female gender. The person may feel emotionally attacked, confused, shocked and angry, depressed or emotionally numb. Such severe abuse and violence can lead to post traumatic stress disorder, depression and anxiety. Some abused women try using drugs like alcohol, smoking and may overeat to cope with the abuse but this may lead to more severe physical and mental problems. The effects of violence may or may or not wear away soon. Sometime violence that occurred years ago may continue to traumatize the person.

There are many risk factors for domestic violence and abuse such as lower levels of education, exposure to child maltreatment, witnessing family violence, harmful use of alcohol, and drugs, suspicion of infidelity, having multiple partners and the attitude of accepting violence and gender inequality. Some of the factors that are specifically associated with intimate partner violence are a past history of violence and marital discord and dissatisfaction. The unequal position of men and women and the use of violence to resolve conflict are strongly associated with violence against women.

Healing is an important part of such violence and interventions are needed to heal deal with the effects of violence and also to prevent it from happening. Some interventions are gender equality training, promoting communication skills and relationship skills, reducing access and harmful use of alcohol and intervention that changes cultural gender norms. Apart from these professional interventions, one can take steps right away to help oneself. If is important to get away from the attacker first and find a safe place. One should call someone they trust or contact the police for protection. One should protect evidence of the abuse and go to an emergency room immediately for help. One needs a lot of emotional support so one needs to reach out to people and get support.

Saturday, 11 January 2014

Single Parenting

Concerns, Problems and Effects

Single Parenting
Single parents are not a new phenomenon in today’s world. Widowed, divorced or unmarried; single mothers are more common than single fathers today. They face an uphill task in leading a life free of stress, a life of being accepted and life without facing struggles. Life can be quite stressful for children and adults in a single parent household. Society may unrealistically expect the family as a normal two-parent family and when they realize it is away from the realm of normal functioning, it may be difficult for them to accept the reality and accommodate such single parents.

The life of a single parent may be overwhelmed by responsibility. Taking care of the children, giving them time, maintaining a job, managing work and home responsibilities, keeping up with the bills and household chose are all a burden for a single parent. There is a significant effect on the family’s financial and economic burden. Apart from these, due to separation and family breakup, there are significant issues with regard to child custody, visits, effect of the parental conflict on the child, the loss of opportunities for parents and children to spend time together and bond, the effects on the child’s school or educational performance and other social effects, the disruptions in the family’s extended relationships and problems due to new relationships.

Some of the major concerns with regard to single parenting are the worries of providing for the family and also providing an adequate role model for the missing parent. Even though the joint family is dying out in our country, extended families still prove to be a source of support and help the child learn and model an adult. A single parent may be concerned with the child missing out on an important experience of his growing years but the truth is that children are very resilient and adaptive than adults. Finances of course are a source of anxiety for the single parent as there is no backup available but the reality again is that it is just the perception that single families don’t do well with a single source of income. In fact, being a single parent makes one financially independent and unanswerable to anyone in terms of the amount of money spent.

Thursday, 9 January 2014

Sexual Orientation

Homosexuality: Causes, Impact, Coming Out and Homophobia

Sexual Orientation
Since a while now, great efforts are being made by the world and our society to accommodate and accept the prevalence of people with different sexual orientations. The field of psychology through its different approaches has been accelerative in its effort to remove the stigma, prejudice and discrimination of people who identity with gay, lesbian or bisexual orientations. To gain a better understanding about sexual orientation, it is important to look into what it is and what causes people to have a sexual orientation as well as the role of prejudice and discrimination and the psychological impact of such prejudice. Other important factors such as homophobia and coming out by acceptance of one’s sexual orientation are other factors about which awareness is important.

The enduring patterns of emotional, sexual and romantic attractions to men, women or both sexes are referred to as sexual orientation. It also comprises the sense of identity of a person based on those behaviors, attractions and relating to other people with similar attractions. Usually, sexual orientation is discussed in three categories of heterosexual, homosexual and bisexual. Heterosexuality refers to having emotional, romantic and sexual attraction to members of the opposite sex whereas homosexuality refers to having those attractions to members of the same sex as is with gays and lesbians. Bisexuality refers to having sexual, emotional and romantic attractions to both men and women.

A person does not choose to be of a particular sexual orientation. Research shows that it is based on biological factors which occur during birth. It is established before puberty and changes over the course of a lifetime for some people. Yet, one thing is very clear – sexual orientation is not something that one decides for themselves or for others. There is no way one can know about someone’s sexual orientation except when they talk about it. Some people think it can be known by the way people talk or walk or by their dress or jobs or hobbies. These are untrue and are stereotypes which are widely accepted judgments about people.
Prejudice and discrimination is the major cause of negative impactfor a person with varied sexual orientation. On the social level, it is reflected by the stereotypes by members of different societies and groups. All stereotypes exist even with supported evidence and are used to excuse unequal treatment of the LGBT community (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender). Some examples of such stereotypical treatment are limitations in job opportunities, relationship recognitions or parenting. On the individual level, there are negative consequences of stereotypes. Although they learn to deal with the social stigma, the patterns of prejudice have negative effects on well-being and health of the person. There are a lot of concerns with mental health due to this stigma and as social support is crucial to cope with the stress, attitudes and discrimination, it becomes difficult to find such support.

Coming out is the process in which a person openly acknowledges, accepts and discloses one’s sexual orientation to others. The first step in this process is to accept it oneself first and recognizing one’s own orientation. It is not a one-time thing and is a constant process as it can be stressful. It builds a person’s self-esteem and helps one feel closer to people they love even if it seems risky. Coming out is an important psychological step as it fosters mental health and well-being.

Homophobia is the fear and apprehension of people with sexual orientations different from the widely accepted one of heterosexuals. It is the fear and hatred of those who appear to be gay, lesbians or bisexuals. Some are fearful due to wrong biased information when people around them encourage negative feelings about homosexuality. Others don’t have any information about it and thus are unaware of gay people and their issues. This can create insecurity and sometimes physical or verbal abuse and violence due to discrimination. Homophobia can cause fear, depression, paranoia or isolation and can lead to suicide.

Sunday, 5 January 2014

Gender and Gender Identity

Femininity, Masculinity, Gender Roles and Stereotypes


Gender and Gender Identity
Male, female or intersex – we all have a biological sex. Every human being has a gender and a gender identity. Gender is biological but gender identity is one’s deepest feeling of one’s gender. It is expressed through one’s behavior of masculinity, femininity or in some cases, neither or both. Some people may be transgender which means that their biological sex and gender identity do no correlate.

Gender identity is how a person sees oneself socially. A person may be biological male but may relate socially to a woman or on the other hand, a person may be biologically female but may relate socially to a man. Sometimes a person may be fluid like relating as a man at times yet as a woman at other times. It is the manner in which a person expresses – clothing, behavior and personal appearance developed by the age of two or three.

Feminine traits are the culturally specific set of behaviors associated with being a girl or a woman whereas masculine traits are the cultural behavior of being a boy or a man. Culturally, the most common feminine traits are dependent, emotional, innocent, weak, nurturing, sensitive, caring, soft, etc. The words most commonly used to describe masculinity are strong, tough, hard, aggressive, rebellious, competitive, active, etc. These categories are unrealistic as it doesn’t capture how one feels or behaves. It should also be noticed that all men have some feminine traits and all women have some masculine traits. Our culture teaches men and women to be different but the truth is that all men and women are more alike than different.

The characteristics of gender roles are shaped by society although they vary from culture to culture. Children learn gender roles from an early age mostly from their parents, society, culture, religion and also from media. It is the way people act, express, say and does. Gender stereotypes are widely accepted bias with regard to people or groups and most of the stereotypes about gender are inequality and unequal treatment regarded as sexism. Most of the basic stereotypes are with regard to personality traits, domestic behaviors, occupation and physical appearance.

Personality traits are those stereotypes where women are expected to be passive and submissive and men are expected to be aggressive and self-confident. The stereotyped behavior of caring of children is considered to be done best by women while household repairs are best done by men. With regard to occupation, women are thought to do best with work of assisting and care-taking whereas the higher managerial level jobs are thought to be suited more for men. Women are expected to be small and graceful while men are expected to be tall and broad-shouldered with regard to physical appearance.

Hyper-femininity and Hyper-masculinity are exaggerations of stereotyped behaviors. Hyper-feminine women exaggerate the qualities believed to be feminine and believe in boosting men’s ego’s by being passive, nurturing, graceful, innocent, flirtatious and na├»ve. Hyper-masculine men exaggerate qualities believed to be masculine and believe in competing with other men and dominating women by being aggressive, hard, imposing, ambitious and demanding. These behaviors create difficult relationships and although these behaviors are rare, the inhibitions and anxieties regarding masculinity and femininity remain.

Wednesday, 1 January 2014

Juvenile Delinquency

Characteristics, Causes, and Risk Factors for Youth Crime

Juvenile Delinquency
With rapid changes occurring with regard to development in our country, there are quite a few changes happening in the environment, the climate and our society. So is the behavior of the youth. Crimes committed by the youth of our country are at an alarmingly high rate today. There is an increase in delinquent behavior among the youth aged between 14-20 years and also in the number of children committing crimes in Indian schools.

A juvenile or a child is a person who hasn’t yet attained 18 years of age. A juvenile who is in conflict with the law is a child below 18 years of age who has committed an act which is considered a crime or an offense if they were an adult. Depending upon the type and severity of the crime committed, persons under 18 are charged and tried as most legal systems prescribe specific procedures for dealing with juveniles, such as courts, juvenile detention centers or rehabilitation homes.

According to the National Crime Records Bureau Report of 2012, there has been a tremendous increase in the number of crimes committed by children from 0.8% in 2001 to 11.8% in 2011. Most juveniles are seen to be involved in crimes such as hurting, theft, riots and burglary. Kidnapping and abduction committed by juveniles has also increased considerably since 2008 and has inflated from 354 in 2008 to an alarming number of 823 in 2011. There is also a growing concern on the number of girl children in crimes which has come up to 5.8% in 2011 from the earlier 5.1% in 2010.

Some of the vital characteristics of juvenile delinquency in our country will help give a better view of the reality of the existence of this in our society. It has been seen that the delinquency rates are higher for boys than girls most of the time with a boy to girl ratio of 2.8:1. The delinquency rates are also higher during the early adolescence ages of 12-16 years which means that about 60% of the delinquents fall in this age group. The prevalence of juvenile delinquents is higher in urban than the rural population, especially in the metropolitan cities of India than in small towns or cities. Strangely, children living with families and guardians were more involved in delinquent behavior which shockingly shows the role of family environment in juvenile delinquency. Low educational background and a poor economic history has been seen to be aprime attribute for the development of this behavior.

There are many risk factors that add to juvenile crime in India. Sometimes, malfunctioning of the systems in juveniles home can turn interns into criminals. Due to neglect in services and infrastructure, the conditions of juvenile homes are bad and when society refuses to accept such children there is increased anger leading them to a life of hate and crime. The environment provided to children today by our society engages in materialism and the business of making money. The entertainment business today shows crime, hate, greed and violence with the evil bad men, the world of crime, corruption and killing.The supremacy of the male, differences in rich and poor, prosperity of the evil and the suffering of the good – all these have an impact on our country’s children.

These are just a few facts and risk factors which turn teenagers into criminals and create a lot of delinquents. Other factors like drugs, parental neglect, revenge, poverty and unemployment also contribute to the issue of juvenile crime. It is time for the government and the society to take steps to fight this problem and should provide appropriate education, values, facilities, counseling and help create change.