Monday, 31 October 2016

NHS not Transgender-Friendly Enough, Says Nurse

NHS upsets transgender patients

A nurse who works in a hospital and is also a transgender patient claims that the NHS fails to meet the expectations of both adults and children who are transgender. 53 year old Kirsty Cass labours at hospital in southern part of England. She was a patient of NHS undergoing a gender reassignment surgery in 2012. She said that when she regained consciousness she recollected a staff member referring to her as a “he” and found it demoralising.

She told BBC News she was a female and there was another patient who had the same surgery as her and told her that she was referred to by one of the assists as ‘mate’ and was not what patients need. After a few years, Kirsty went to another NHS hospital, to get a biopsy done for the possibility of cancer. Luckily, the tests were negative, but she had a very stressful stay in the ward yet again. She was taken back to the male ward. The nurse on duty seated at a desk looked at her and questioned why a female was brought into that ward. She was petrified and felt so embarrassed that she burst into tears.

According to the professional union the Royal College of Nursing, transgender patients more or less face such predisposition and face an absence of being understood very often. It conducted a survey comprising of about one thousand two hundred nurse staff and discovered that a small number of them were taught well in this area. About seventy six per cent stated that further training was needed for all staff dealing with health care in order to improve care.

One of the nurses took care of a girl who wished to be a boy and nobody in the ward had an idea so as to what to say or do. So she took this chance to have a word with the patients, and they felt pleased that someone asked them how they would like to be addressed and took out some time to speak with them about the same.


Gender can go further than basic anatomy is about the way an individual classifies themselves. They may look like a female but feel like a man or it could be the other way round. Some people also would consider calling themselves genderless.

A discrepancy between genders can be stressful. And when such is the situation, it is then a medical circumstance called as gender dysphoria. It is not connected to gender, and being transgender does not necessarily make one queer.

Some people may ask to be treated with the help of hormones or may opt for surgery to enhance their bodily appearance while yet some may not do so. The government claimed to work on developing and to excel staff training in this area.

The RCN created supervision called Fair Care for Transpatients that give best training. It states that the preference of each patient should be taken into consideration whilst trying to determine which gender ward they must be assigned to.

Friday, 28 October 2016

The Self Healing Needle Plugs Its Own Puncture Wound After an Injection


Hypodermic Syringe – Eliminating Fear of Needles

Scientists have now come up with hypodermic syringe, thereby eliminating the fear of needles which some of us tend to have regarding needles. This hypodermic syringe tends to seal the hole it leaves behind after it has been removed. The needle is said to be coated in a film that physically plugs the gap left in a vein when it is removed. This breakthrough has come from an improbable quarter, the mussel.

The ability of the shellfish to stick to a surface in the wet has inspired the adhesive material utilised on the syringe. This discovery would be helpful in preventing a huge variety of issues due to bleeding under the skin. Those who would be benefiting from this discovery would be people whose blood does not clot correctly. These comprise of people suffering from haemophilia, diabetes and those with the advanced stage of cancer.

According to the authors from the Korean Institute of Technology, the bleeding triggered by hypodermic syringes when removed also tends to induce a `certain degree of psychological fear’. Moreover the bleeding could also cause bruises which could prevent further therapeutic injections. Several routine surgical operations as in the case of plastic surgery need to be avoided with people suffering from blood clotting problems if they tend to suffer uncontrolled bleeding.

Haemostatic Needles

Substitutes to syringes seem to be few, with the options of micro needle patches and oral and nasal delivery. The main obstacle in overcoming by the team had been in getting the sealant gel to grip the needle and thereafter to completely seal the puncture area on removal.

The team utilised polymers known as catecholics in order to overcome this issue which had been motivated by those used by mussels to grip the rocks. The polymer film on the needle is transformed to an adhesive thin gel like substance which shows instant self-sealing of the pricked vessels, which results in total prevention of bleeding for normal as well as haemophilia animal models.

The authors ended that they had developed haemostatic needles which are capable of completely preventing blood loss following tissue puncture, thereby showing significant promise for use in patients with conditions affecting haemostatic and those with infectious blood-borne diseases.

Sir Christopher Wren – Unlikely Pioneer in Syringe

The word syringe comes from Greek mythology. Syrinx, a chaste nymph had been chased to the edge of the waters and disguised herself as water reeds. Galen, the famous Greek surgeon had known about syringes and being inspired by how the snakes tend to transmit venom and how they were used to administer ointments though not intravenously.

Sir Christopher Wren, the architect in the 17th century, an unlikely pioneer in syringes carried out experiments on dogs utilising goose quills and pigs bladders to inject them with opium and wine. Alexander Wood, Scottish surgeon of Edinburg, has been credited with pioneering the new hypodermic syringe with the combination of a hollow steel needle together with a proper syringe in injecting morphine in a human.

He together with his wife had been addicted to injecting morphine and his wife had apparently been the first person to die of a drug overdose.

Monday, 24 October 2016

Prescribing Holidays Could Help Fight Infections

Leisure to boost immunity

Lingering on a beach could boost our immunity and thus prove to be good for health. Researchers are inspecting if recommending holidays, listening to songs or an alteration of scene may trigger better immunity and help humans fight against diseases.

They ran test on mice where they found that by making their space of living neater and smarter looking, with the help of toys, colourful vivid boxes or a wheel for running, could create marvels for their T cells. T cells play a vital role in immunity and help in protecting the body against foreign substances that enter the body and hamper with the system. Researchers from Queen Mary University in London alleged that the same situation should be set up for human trials.

In their research, the mice residing in enhanced environments of a bigger cage with ample stimulations in comparison with old cages which are simple were discovered to be better fighters against diseases and infections. Greater levels of molecules those are good at reacting to infections originated in their white blood corpuscles.

'Holiday resort'

The lead researcher at QMUL, Prof Fulvio D’Acquisto said that the effect seen is noteworthy as there have been no drugs administered for the study. All they did was changed their housing assembly. One could say that the team had just put the mice in the same of their holiday inn for 14 days and observed them while they let them revel in their new and interesting environment.

In a different test conducted on mice having diseases, he found out that even minute changes in bedding had some effect on their well-being Providing them with blankets of better quality and offer a more relaxed sleeping environment indicated that their illness was reduced from 4 days to only 2 days.

With regards to the immune system in humans, it is yet not known how the surrounding we exist in has an effect in the primary defence mechanism in the body to fight against diseases. But what is believed is that aspects such as contamination, site, mental state and social prominence could also have a role to play.

Body boost

Prof D’Acquisto also states that researches display that there is some sort of connection between immune and emotional response. As of now no one is aware of how this works but a concept is that an increased degree of emotions can boost the performance of bone marrow, which in return gets greater nutrients, thus improving the body’s immunity.

He suggests that people should consider what they can do to reason their emotions and to not pretend that everyone is the same. People should not try to suppress their personality and should accept the differences and question what can they do to make themselves happier than they are and whether they should make some changes for the way they live?

Whether it is a stroll on the beach or by even a small thing which is rejuvenating, Prof D’Acquisto is curious to find out if the health of patients could be enhanced by creating minute changes to our surrounding.

Friday, 21 October 2016

Common Painkillers Increase Heart Failure Risk

Common Painkillers

Pain killers to kill heart? 

A recent study indicates that consuming common types of painkillers is connected to the fact of having a high risk of heart failure. Naproxen, diclofenac and ibuprofen are non-steroidalanti-inflammatory drugs called NSAIDs which are used frequently to deal with inflammation and to subside pain.

The British Medical Journal study observed ten million people, who aged 77 when taken an average, who consumed the pain killers. Experts from the UK believe that the results had some significance for many of those who were under the age of 65, but would be a concern for those who were aged.

The study evaluated data for ten million consumers who resided in the UK, Italy, Germany and Netherlands and equated them with people who did not consume this form of drug. In Italy from the University of Milano-Bicocca, the researchers established that the consumption of NSAIDs could amplify the threat of being admitted to a hospital for the case of a heart failure by 19 per cent.

As majority of the participants in the test were older and those who were on NSAIDs were generally having a poor health the experts from UK believe that their results had a small amount of applicability for many of the those under 65 years, but is a matter of concern for the older patients.

'Use with caution'

The British Heart Foundation or BHF advised that patients should take a lower dose that they can of the NSAIDs for a shortest period of time. Medical officer at the BHF Prof Peter Weissberg said that the enormous study based on the act of recognizing and noting down facts underlines researches conducted previously which displayed that few NSAIDs which is a set of drugs usually taken by people suffering from pain in their joints, upturn the chances of developing heart failure.

It is commonly known by all now for some years that these kind of drugs need to be used carefully especially for those who are a great risk or even have heart related problems. This is relevant majorly to those who depend on painkillers frequently and have them on a daily basis instead of once in a blue moon.

Since joint and heart problems are co related, especially in the aged, the test stands as a cue to those who practice medicine to cautiously contemplate how NSAIDs are prescribed to patients by them and also to patients that they must consider taking an effective dose but in the least possible amount for a shorter period of time. Their treatment should be discussed with their GP to clear all matters of concern.

Younger patients

At the Royal Pharmaceutical Society, consultant pharmacist Helen Williams mentioned on BBC Radio 4’s Today program that the aim required to be on the group of people who were older with problems and conditions that would make them prone to an elevated risk of heart failure anyhow.

She said that it is in those patients who suffer from diabetes, abnormal blood pressure or even kidney problems, that when they add on these certain drugs there is a chance that there could be a slight increase in risks. From the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, professor of pharmaco epidemiology Stephen Evans declared that the effect is that it is of much less importance to many of those who are below 65 years of age and are yet popping painkillers, but for those who are above the age of 80 and are really very old, the consequences are of great importance.

Ms Williams advised that the younger group of people who consume short doses of ibuprofen for instance may not necessarily be concerned. On the other hand she did notify against the younger patients who take the drug on a regular basis. If these drugs are taken intermittently mostly like for instance people suffer from normal headaches or pain, injuries due to sport activities etc, then this matter might not be of so much concern for them.

But she also adds that she thinks she would say that if a person is a youngster who would probably buy this kind of drugs regularly and keep taking them effectively and all the time, then that person should be directed by their clinician as there are many other matters related to the drug that people would want to keep an eye out for. For instance, matters concerning their kidneys.

Ms William later also mentioned that it is necessary that it was for the appropriate reason that painkillers we buy from retail stores with no needed prescription or license. Ibuprofen are drugs which are anti-inflammatory and so if a person’s muscle has been injured it is expected to be inflamed and in that situation only ibuprofen can be administered as it is right. However, if someone has a headache it is not likely that they will be having an inflammation issue, and hence paracetamol is acceptable.

Tuesday, 18 October 2016

First Three Person Baby Born Using New Method

Three Person
3 people’s person 

New scientists disclose that the world’s first ever baby has been given birth to with the help of a latest three person fertility method. The 5 month old baby boy has the natural DNA construct from his biological parents to which a tad bit of a genetic code was added from a donor. Doctors from the US took the extraordinary step to make sure the little boy would not have any condition caused genetically that his biological mother from Jordan has in her own genes.

Researchers say that this step proclaims a new period in the field of medicine and could positively be of aid to other families having conditions genetic related which occur rarely. However they also notified that thorough checks will be needed for this new technique they came up with which they named as mitochondrial donation. Though this is not the first instance that scientists have made babies that receive the DNA from 3 different people, that was taken in the late 1990s, but yet is stands as a completely original and substantial technique.

Three person babies

Inside almost every cell of the body are tiny edifices, known as mitochondria which is the power house of the cell. Its main motive is to break down food to convert it into energy. Some ladies are born with genetic defects in their mitochondria which can be passed on to their successors.

In the situation regarding the Jordanian family, there was a condition called Leigh Syndrome that would have demonstrated fatality to any foetus conceived. This family had previously been through the heart breaking experience of having 4 miscarriages along with the loss of two of their children one when aged at eight months and thesecond at the age of 6.

Leigh syndrome

Experts have developed various methods for fertility to help such families in need. The team from the US travelled all the way to Mexico to conduct the procedure as there were no legal restrictions there that banned it, and chose a protocol that extracts the entire necessary needed DNA from the egg from the mother along with mitochondria in good health from the egg from the donor to produce a healthy fresh egg that could be crossed with the sperm from the father.

The outcome of this is an offspring having only 0.1% of the donor’s DNA which is the mitochondrial DNA and the rest of characters and features like colour of hair and eyes come from the biological parents. Medical director Dr John Zhang along with his colleagues at the New Hope Fertility Centre situated in New York practiced a procedure to create 5 embryos out of which only 1 developed like the normal ones. The UK has now approved of laws to permit the making of babies from 3 people.

However, the science behind this study does raise moral questions, inclusive of how such children created by this technique may feel about having their DNA from 3 people. Experts in the field of fertility believe that it is important to move ahead to new horizons but then again with caution. Some people have probed whether we are currently only hearing about the achievement story while unsuccessful trials could be not yet told of. A member of the team at Newcastle University, Prof Alison Murdoch has been the lead of the 3 person IVF effort in the UK. She said that the rendition of the donation of mitochondria for the purpose of clinical protocol is not a race but an aim to be attained with care so that it is safe and reproducible.

Yet some critics give and take that the study is negligent. From the prochoice team Human Genetics Alert Dr David King says that it is simply heinous that the people disregarded the careful approach of US regulators and conducted the study In Mexico, because they believe they know best. He also asked a rhetorical question saying, since when is an unsophisticated ‘saving lives is the proper thing to do’ a stable medical principal approach, particularly when there are no lives saved? Dr Zhang, along with his team of experts mention that all questions regarding the same will be answered once they present their conclusions and results at a summit held in October in the American Society for Reproductive Medicine.

From the University of Kent, Prof Darren Griffin who is an expert in the field of Genetics commented that the study paves the way for a new time in pre attaching genetics and signifies innovative methods for treating those families that are prone to transmit any kind of disease genetically. With the help of new fundamental treatment procedures like this one for instance, thought provoking moral issues always arise, all the same any apprehensions need to be well adjusted against a complex or unwelcomed consequence of not applying this type of technology when families are genuinely in need of it.

Monday, 17 October 2016

One in Six Young People Eat Fast Food Twice a Day


Meal without meat is not a meal

As stated by the a survey of the nation’s habits on eating, one out of every six young individuals consume fast food two times a day. It was found by the  Good Food Nation Survey that on an average majority of the people ate fast food for two days out of seven.

However, in the category of people between the ages of 16 to 20 years, 1 in every 6 individual had fast food at least two times in a day and between 21 to 34 years old, one out of eight people consumed the same as often. A test was conducted in which more than five thousand people found that 50 per cent of them were under the apprehension that if a meal does not include meat, then it is not a meal.

Yet, the same amount of people were not aware as of how much meat would be a recommendable daily amount. No more than 70 grams a day which is the same as 2 and a half bacon rashers should be consumed as advised by the Department of Health. But almost 1 in every 4 individual believed that the amount of meat advised was at least two times of it. The study found that 21 per cent of men and 32 per cent of men and women between the ages of 16 to 21 years consumed meat at a minimum 3 times a day.

A characteristic adult currently consumes meat no less than twice a day and as a result has only six days a month without meat consumption. Brand editor of BBC Good food Christine Hayes said that the study portrayed that getting confused about the quantity of meat one can relish while they still consume a balanced healthy diet can be easy. She also comments that the people who eat meat can still prepare a Sunday roast and consume the infrequent steak when composed with some dishes free of meat.

Social media influence

Through the study it was found that 2 out of 5 individuals between the age of 21 and 34 had uploaded a picture of a meal they prepared on social media sites like Instagram. Another person being a third uploaded a photo of a dish they had bought in a restaurant. Nearly one 1 of 3 people would feel motivated to prepare a meal subsequently seeing the picture on social networking sites. Likewise, in that age group around 43 per cent accessed the internet on their smartphones to find recipes and 26 per cent would move step by step a recipe on video through their phones. The same number of people were inclined by YouTube when buying food.

Skipping meals

In the midst of other results of the study in excess of a quarter adults more or less always avoided having breakfast. 1 out of 4 said that they would skip breakfast majority of the time when it was about those between the ages of 21 and 34. The individuals belonging to this group were also the one most prone to avoid their lunch as well.

Saturday, 15 October 2016

Evidence for a Limit to Human Lifespan


Scientists from the US claim that the human life span may extend only up to the maximum of 115 years. As published in the Journal Nature, their results were completed by examining more than 10 years of data on prolonged existence of humans.

They reckon that a few rare people may have the opportunity to live a long life, but chances are so poor that one would have to scrub ten thousand earths to search for a single 125 year old. However though few researchers have applauded the study, others have termed it as a miserable sham.

The average period that a person may expect to live has been rising unremittingly since the 19th century due to favourable conditions like vaccinations, safer methods of child birth and fighting against lethal conditions like cancer and heart related issues. The group in New York studied data from the database of Human Mortality and the demises of people significantly older than 100 years of age, typically one who has reached the age of 110 in countries like UK, Japan, US and France.

The data displayed a rise in expectancy of life were slowing down in those above 110 years of age and that the highest age of death had reach a state of little or no change after a period of rise and fall for a minimum of 20 years. One of the researchers from the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Prof Jan Vijg mentioned on the BBC News website that in case of people over the age of 105 the progress they make is very less, which shows that they are possibly approaching the maximum point to human life.

For the very first time in so many years they have been able to view this, it looks like a limit span of life is of 115 years of age. It is near to impossible to cross beyond that age. We would require ten thousand worlds like earth to find a single individual in a particular year who will exists until 125, showing a very little chance.

The oldest person

The oldest person Jeanne Calment, whose age can be traced back by official documents, was 122 years of age when she passed away in the year 1997. The French representative symbol of longevity was given birth to before the construction of the Eiffel Tower and also came across Vincent van Gogh the famous painter. Since her nobody has gotten close to the age she lived for.

The director of UCL Institute of Healthy Ageing Prof Dame Linda Partridge proclaimed that a boundary to lifespan has to exist logically. But to source she said that even though the paper being very interesting narrates what is happening, it fails to describe the things that will occur.

The pick of those above 110 in the study were influenced by infection and malnutrition in their younger days tracing back in the nineteenth century. Only in 1980 smallpox was declared as eradicated. It was definitely very unique to what the present group of people being born in a particular period will go through, however it would then be somewhat negative as many children have turned obese and that could hamper lifespan.


The 115 year statement is a lot for the director of the Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research Prof James Vaupel. He defined the study as a miserable sham and stated that researchers had in history determined the limit to be 65, 85 and 105 years only to be proved incorrect again and again.

He mentioned in this sorry series, the people convinced that there are forthcoming limits did not use demography and statistical strategies to test the theories related to the limit of lifespan, instead the subjugated pompousness, under  supplied methods and pretty displays to try to prove their assumption.

This study fails to add any knowledge scientifically as to how long one can live. It is very clear that experiments suggest that there is a limit to lifespan, which observe animals in conditions which are ideal. From the University of Illinois, Prof Jay Olshansky said that mice have the tendency to live for nearly a thousand days, canines for nearly five thousand days and humankind is reaching a natural boundary to life.

Stopping ageing? 

The ultimatum of dealing with ageing is that we have not advanced to live to great old ages. Millennium of natural selection has improved us to thrive, grow and procreate in our formative years. The consequences to our bodies 50 years from now or later, at ages we have not gotten to in our existence in history will be a side effect of the guidelines in our DNA that are vital in youth. Therefore, any trials to proliferate human life will need tactic beyond curing diseases and try to solve ageing at cell level inside the body.

Tuesday, 11 October 2016

Can an Algorithm Replace the Pill?

Happy Cycles

Elina Berglund is a particle physicist from Sweden and assisted in the discovery of the Higgs boson particle. Then when the Large Hadron Collider completed its first test in the year 2012, she felt it was time for a change. She felt it was difficult to achieve and so she thought to try out something totally different. That is when she came up with the app Natural Cycles to check fertility. Berglund 32 years of age started putting effort in the app while she was still at the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN). She wanted to stop letting her body be subjective to pills but was unaware of any natural forms of birth control. So she prepared an algorithm for herself.

How it works

The algorithm was centred on progressive statistical techniques from her duration at CERN and it made use of the temperature of her body to find out fertility. After the egg is discharged from the ovary, levels of female hormone progesterone increases which causes the bodily temperature in women to rise up to 0.45 degree Celsius warmer. By punching into her app your daily temperature and by comparing all the data fed in, you know when you would be able to have coitus unprotected which will be displayed in green on the calendar and when the use of contraception will be required which will be shown in red.

The app has led two trials clinically, in which the second one evaluated data entry of a crowd greater than four thousand women between the age of 20 and 35. While that happened to continue for one year, one hundred and forty three pregnancies took place unplanned, out of which ten occurred on the days marked in green thus rating the app a 99.5 % in effectiveness similar to the pill. It is the only app currently of its kind to be regarded as a medical instrument which has been approved giving it the same importance as condoms and IUDs even if it is of a different form.

What next? 

Her next aim was for the technique not to be categorized not just as fertility but as a contraceptive monitor. The app will stand as a form of natural means of contraception substituting the pill without having any side effects. Fault finders have questioned them regarding the app saying that it is not suggestible for those who are in their early years of life or those who want to keep pregnancy at bay, as there are other alternative methods which are much more effective.

From the Swedish Medical Institute Karolinska Institutet, the lead author Kristina Gemzell Danielsson says that the effectiveness is far less than that of IUD or intrauterine contraception or inserts, but alike to the pill when it is used for real. Bazian who are medical data analysts that wrote for NHS Choices mentioned that this sort of app can assist in keeping track as of when it would be advisable to keep away from unprotected coitus. However, they also observed that the data was not accumulated to particularly as an answer for the question and may possibly not be appropriate for the purpose.

The pros and cons

Elina further says that it is essential to see that the study is a study conducted in real life, which means that the routine of the app was considered as close to realism as promising. In organised clinical test, the act of presenting is always considered as a better way because there is a lot of scrutinizes from clinicians that bring to mind for instance women consume pills so on and so forth.

To which Danielson also agrees in response to the observation that the rate at which pregnancy was dropped out was more in the study than with the pill. She also said that the key is pure motivation. For a number of women this method might not be perfect but it can be a good alternative for women who are motivated. The app, Natural Cycles can be of aid to a lot of women who plan to have a baby as well as to prevent the chances of pregnancy.

Elina is currently aiming on the facts of this app, along with a study conducted clinically explored the issues that had an impact on pregnancy and a movement that inaugurates tomorrow in the UK called #HappyPregnancy. Being a part of the movement, this app is proposing a refund to any female who is unsuccessful to get pregnant within a period of 9 months as per usage.

Natural Cycles at present has hundred thousand users at the cost of £6.99 per month and in the month of June the firm had around six million (£4.5m). When Elina was asked what was next to come she said a lot of things. The main aim for her as well as the team of clinicians was to expand the team not only in the UK but also internationally.

Monday, 10 October 2016

Cervical Screening Could Save Hundreds More Lives

Screening is a must

A study recently conducted andpublished in the British Journal of Cancer throws some light on the fact that many lives of those people suffering from cervical cancer could be saved only if all those who are entitled would opt for a screening. The report found that Just about two thousand lives of women are saved in England each year since these women opt for a cervical cancer screening.

Scientists from Queen Mary University of London mentioned that the largest effect seen by them were from the results of the screening were mostly observed in women who were in the age group of fifty to sixty four. Each year in England approximately at least 800 women lose their lives battling against cervical cancer. In the UK the screening of cervical cancer is offered to women right from the age of 25 up to the age of 64.

Those women who are between the age of 25 and 49 are requested to do the screening every three years, and those who are up to the age of 64 are asked to get the screening done every five years. The screening comprises of a smear test which examines the entrance of the uterus for any traces of cell which could be abnormal. This gives doctors an opportunity to extract the tissue which has a chance to become more malignant or say cancerous.

Eleven thousand records

The team of researchers evaluated the records of women more than eleven thousand in England who were diagnosed with cancer of the cervix. These researchers surprisingly found that three hundred extra lives could be rescued if all those women aged between twenty five and sixty four opted to get a screening done regularly.

They also found that women five times more could possibly die from cancer of the cervix if they chose no screening to be done between fifty to sixty four years of age. The person leading the research was Prof Peter Sasieni. Based at Queen Mary University of London, Prof Sasieni said that it is all thanks to the screening that many women now are alive and have good health.

Every year, already thousands of cancers are prevented and cure with the help of the cervical screening programme and as it may continue to do so, there is still hope for some improvements wherein samples of HPV or the human papilloma virus being tested and checked, looking at many more women who are expected to create an avoidable circumstance to the condition in that specific age group.

Health information manager Dr Claire Knight, at Cancer Research UK suggested that women should go ahead with the offer to get a cervical screening done. It is crucial to keep in mind that cervical screening is helpful for those women without the symptoms.

Women who experience not frequent or persistent bleeding, ache or variation in vaginal discharge even though they have been screened not a long time ago and irrespective of how old they are should definitely get it consulted n checked by their GP.

Thursday, 6 October 2016

Long Daytime Naps Are Warning Sign For Type-2 Diabetes

Type-2 Diabetes
Napping in the day

Japanese researchers have now found that prolonged periods of naps extending more than one hour a day could possibly be an indication sign for type 2 diabetes. This link was found when they investigated studies based on observation which involved much more than 300,000 people.

Experts from the UK said that the people having illnesses for a longer time and those left with diabetes undiagnosed often had a feeling of fatigue in course of the day. However, they also said that they had no solid proof that naps created or amplified the risk of having diabetes.

This enormous study was conducted by researchers at the University of Tokyo, and is being presented in Munich at a conference of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes. In the research it was found the connection concerning long naps during the day of greater than an hour and an increased risk by 45 per cent of diabetes, as compared to no nap time during the day. However there were no evidences seen in cases with naps for a period of 40 minutes or less.

Sleeping patterns

The researchers believed that lengthy naps could be an outcome of having disturbed sleep during the night, that actually triggered by sleep apnoea. This kind of sleeping disorder could escalate the risk of heart problems, cardiovascular issues and other metabolic conditions, together with type 2 diabetes.

Because of work schedule or patterns of social life, people are deprived of sleep, which could result in increased desire for food, which could amplify the threat of type 2 diabetes. Then again it was also likely that people are not very healthy or are in the early stages of diabetes were more prone to take naps during the day for a longer period. On the contrary, the authors believe that naps of a shorter span were expected to increase vigilance and normal motor movements.

Early warning sign

From the University of Glasgow, Naveed Satter a professor of metabolic medicine said that there was currently a lot of proof of some kind of connection between disturbances during sleep and diabetes. It is possible that factors of risk which bring about diabetes also are the root for napping. This could take account of a tad high level of sugar, meaning that napping could be a primary cautionary indication of diabetes said Satter. However appropriate tests were required to figure out whether or not sleeping patterns did make any change to outcomes of real heath.

At the University of Oxford, Dr Benjamin Cairns, from the cancer epidemiology division commented that the results of the tests should be considered with lot of concern and with avoidance of risks. In a broad spectrum, Dr Cairns says that it is not really possible to come down to a final result about not only the causes but also the effects simply established on the basis of studies conducted on observation solely, because as a matter of fact they cannot forget about other explanatory substitutes for their results and finding in the trial.

Tuesday, 4 October 2016

Body Fat Link to Bacteria in Faeces

 Bacteria in Faeces

Bacteria decide your weight? 

Researchers established in King’s College in London believe that the composition of the bacteria found in the faeces of humans may have an impact on the levels of toxic fats in our bodies. They examined stood samples of more than three thousand six hundred twins for the study and found confirmation that some of these bacteria are innate. The material that the faeces contain bacteria could thus partially explain a reason as to why obesity is hereditary through family lines.

This study was published in the journal Genome Biology. The team of researchers dug out information from study partakers about the human faecal microorganism- the bacteria existent in samples of faeces – and matched these samples to six other measures of obesity, inclusive of BMI or body mass index and various types of fat in the body.

As a minimum 50 per cent of human faeces comprises of bacteria which is cast off from the gut. The scientists established that the strongest connections with visceral fat, where people with a high variety of bacteria in their faeces had a lesser intensity of visceral fat. This form of body fat could be bad because it is stockpiled in the area near the stomach around vital organs like the pancreas, liver and intestines to name a few and is connected with a greater risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disorders.

More investigation

Lead study author, Dr Michelle Beaumont from the department of genetic epidemiology and twin research at King’s College in London mentioned that even though the study portrayed a clear connection, it was not possible yet to support and give reasons for its existence.

One possible explanation could be that a deficiency of diversity in faecal bacteria could bring about the supremacy of high levels of microorganisms from the gut which are efficient at converting carbohydrates into fat. Dr Beaumont also stated that as the study was based on scrutiny and observation it they could not comment precisely as on how colonies of bacteria residing in the gut may possibly impact the storage of fat in the body, or if a different path is involved in gaining weight.

She also specified more research was in need in order to investigate how these microorganisms in the intestine and the faeces can impact the health of humans. However, there is an increasing mass of proof to put forward that bacteria from the intestine may have a key role in cases like obesity. It is already recognized that a minimum of 50 per cent of human faeces constitutes of bacteria that is cast off from the intestine. Dr Beaumont also mentioned that ingesting a large diet which consists of various different types of food similar to that of the prior hunter-gatherers could intensify the diversity of the organisms in human faeces.

She says that if the concept that these organisms are passed down from generations to generations stands true, then the same microorganisms may play a very vital role in the process of how fat develops around the body and the risk it can bring on health.

Saturday, 1 October 2016

Making Babies Without Eggs May Be Possible, Say Scientists

No women no cry literally

Researchers say that early experiments indicate that one that in the future it will be likely to make babies without the help of eggs. They have been successful in creating fit and healthy baby mice by fooling sperm to believe that they were given normal eggs to fertilise. In Nature Communications, researchers say that the findings possibly mean that in the future to come, women can be excluded from the process of making babies. As for now, the tests help to describe some of the facts of the process of fertilisation.

End of mum and dad? 

Scientists from the University of Bath began their experiment with an unfertilised egg. With the help of chemicals, they tricked it to form into a pseudo-embryo.These false embryos have a lot in common as compared to ordinary cells, like skin cells and the process of division and controlling their DNA.

The researchers articulated that if sperms could be injected into mice pseudo-embryos could create healthy babies, and then someday it could be possible to accomplish an identical result with regards to humans using those cells which are not from eggs. In the experiments conducted on mouse, the chance of accomplishing a successful pregnancy out of four was one.

One the researchers Dr Tony Perry told the website of BBC News that this is the very first time that somebody has been able to demonstrate something else other than an egg could possibly associate with a sperm in this way to fertilise and form a foetus. It upends just about 200 years of thoughtfulness. The mice babies were born healthy, and had usual life anticipation and also had healthy babies of their own.


The aim of the researchers is to comprehend the exact process of fertilisation because what clearly happens when an egg is fused with a sperm yet stands questionable. For instance, the egg totally shreds the DNA of the sperm of all its chemical bondings and re adds them to it. That inhibits the sperm to behave like one and makes it perform like an embryo, but what is not clear is how there is a change in costume.

 There could be a larger impact on society due to the removal of an egg. According to Dr Perry in the future far far away one possibility is that it could be possible that the body’s ordinary cells can be united with a sperm so that an embryo can be formed. This is to say, two men can have a child with one being the donor for an ordinary cell while the other can donate the sperm.

Or even a single man could be the donor for both his own cells and a sperm and have his own child being like more of a non-identical twin rather than a clone. Dr Perry stresses on the fact that such situations at the present are yet dicey and fanciful. In China earlier this year, researchers were able to create sperms from stem cells which then combine with the egg to form healthy mice.