Monday, 28 November 2016

New Capsule Achieves Long Term Drug Delivery

Capsule

Medical science has undergone massive development over the last few decades. The tag of “incurable” has been removed from many hazardous diseases. The treatment techniques have improved manifold and many new drugs are now available which have increased the lifespan of humans in general. One of the recent remarkable inventions in the field of medical science is the capsule for long-term drug delivery.

This miraculous invention by the researchers at MIT is a capsule that stays in stomach for about two weeks and continues to release its contents during its stay inside the body. This has been tested to aid malaria. Though the invention is still in cradle at present, the researchers and inventors have firm belief that it drugs can be designed to cure many other diseases like diabetes, epilepsy, HIV and neuropsychiatric disorders.

The November, 2016 issue of “Science Translational Medicine”, the researchers of MIT described a drug called ivermectin. They believe this drug has the potential to eliminate malaria.

THE LONG TERM DELIVERY-WHAT DOES IT ACTUALLY MEAN AND HOW IS IT BETTER? 

Drugs that are taken orally are active only for a limited period of time. When the taken medicine passes through the body, they are hampered by the harsh environments inside the stomach and intestines.

The new invention of long term capsule solves all the above said problems. Ivermectin kills any mosquito that bites a person who has taken the medicine. In this way, a huge population of people, irrespective of the fact whether they are infected or not, residing in a malaria prone area, can be treated to eradicate malaria.

The research has led to the establishment of a new company, Lyndra. It is a Cambridge based company whose prime motive is to improve the newly developed drug.

THE DRUG 

In order to achieve long term drug delivery, the researchers had to make sure that the drug is designed in such a way so as to fight the harsh environment inside the stomach and intestines. The capsule is meant to break down after releasing the drug and pass through the digestive tract thereafter.

Thus, a star shaped structure was developed with six arms that are flexible enough to be folded and encapsulated inside a smooth capsule. The arms are made up of a rigid polymer called polycaprolactone. The arms are loaded with drug molecules. The arms are attached by a linker to a rubbery core that is meant to break down eventually after the drug release.

The outer layer of the capsule gets dissolved once it is swallowed, thereby allowing the six arms to unfold. After the expansion of the star, it becomes large enough to resist any force that would otherwise force it down the digestive tract. However, it does not block the digestive tract.

INFERENCE 

The drug has been tested on pigs and has been successful. It may take long before it is launched into the market. However, once it is launched, it can be easily called as one of the major milestones in the history of medical science.

Gear up for the Colder Days: Online Winter Shopping on YEPME


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With winter, just around the corner, stock up on winter wears for women/men in cotton, wool and many other warm materials. Some of the top designers for winter wear include: Balman, Alberto Biani, Marni, Moschino, Neil Albert, Plein Sud, Missoni and the list continues. The customers can strive to be extremely unique and special by choosing several from among the listed cutting edge winter wears on Yepme.

Yepme provides a very large sale in winters especially on jackets. It has exquisite range of winter clothing that sooths the customer eyes. Almost all the shoping sites have exclusive range of summer wear and that too in a bunch but when it comes to the winter wear they provide quite smaller range for the same. Yepme of course has a huge and wide range of winter collection.

Some of the varieties in winter collection that Yepme has are given below:
  •  Winter jackets - Wool jackets are excellent fashion statements for the season since people remain insulated from the cold weather. A good jacket should be warm and trendy. There are various colors to choose on Yepme .Dollhouse and DKNY offer classic pleated lines of jackets including overcoats, down jackets. They come fitted with a snug and cozy hood lined with fur to keep people warm. There is a wide choice for various occasions like a weekend or work week to stock up your wardrobe. A leather jacket with a thick liner that can prove excellent for stopping on Yepme. In the months of February and March there is some rebate on the jackets as well. 
  •  Winter trousers – Yepme has a variety of warm trousers that are nice for walking around during winter. Some have several pockets for essentials as well. A good winter trouser has full length polyester lining to ensure even more warmth during the season. Jeans trousers are also great for winter and are available on Yepme. They are good in keeping a warm layer of air around your legs during winter. Choose the one that is not too tight and specifically designed for winter. Trespass, Crag-hoppers and Regatta are some of the renowned makers of quality winter lined trousers and have exclusive offers on the site. There is a scheme of 50% rebate on winter trousers during winters 
  •  Winter accessories – Accessories come in different shapes and styles like mufflers, scarf’s, benny etc. Scarves make people look great apart from keeping you warm. Winter hats are good to keep head warm. Yepme has almost all the national and international brands for these accessories with a very reasonable rate. 
  •  Footwear– Yepme has a wonderful collection of footwear as well like sports shoes, long boots, and bellies for women, sandals, formal shoes etc. Brands like Puma, Nike, and Forever 21etc are available with discounts.
Offers on Yepme

  1.  Yepme provides coupons for shopping. These are available online and have many offers. People can easily shop using these coupons. 
  2.  The online application available on the play store has a large number of advantages. People who download the app get some of the coupons free but only at the time of offer. 
  3.  There is a time when all the well known brands have special discount on Yepme. Almost all the brands have 50% discount. 
  4.  The site has buy 1 get 1 scheme as well especially on the festive season.
The rates and rebates on the products and clothes for winter are very reasonable on Yepme. The shopping site has exclusive range of all the items that are necessary for winters. Almost all the new and well-known brands are available on Yepme.
When considering winter wears, there is an enormous amount of options on Yepme. The products look and feel great when matched correctly with proper accessories. There is an incredible selection of women/men winter wears available for the customers on Yepme to buy.
Yepme has a very easy delivery service. There are many options available like online payment and cash on delivery as well. The items are delivered on almost accurate date.

Friday, 25 November 2016

What Is Cryogenic Preservation

Cryogenic Preservation

Cryopreservation – Process to Protect Body from Decay


Cryopreservation is said to be a process wherein any living cells, tissues organs or the whole body is protected from decay by storing them at tremendously low temperatures. The purpose is to reserve them for unlimited period of time till the rest of science catches up and technology is made available to revive them bringing them back to life and probably cure the condition which had affected them.

Such a type of technology does not seem to exist. As per Cryonics Institute, which is an US organization that tends to provide the service, the main focus is to provide people with another chance of life and prolong the human lifespans.

However, scientists working with cryopreservation are skeptical to work on smaller scales for research purposes. Clinical senior lecturers in reproductive endocrinology at Imperial College London, Dr Channa Jayasena commented in a statement that `it is currently science fiction to suggest that a person could be brought back to life in future even considering technological advances.

 Cryonics has risks for the patients, poses ethical issue for society, and is very expensive though has no proven advantage. If this was a drug, it would never get approved.

Three Main Steps


According to the Cryonics Institute, the process tends to comprise of three main steps when someone has been declared legally dead. At first the body is instantly placed in an ice bath and a ventilation mask is utilised to provide constant oxygen to the organs of the body especially the brain.

 The anticoagulant heparin together with automated CPR is used for blood circulation while the body temperature is monitored in order to make sure of gradual reduction. Then the body is vitrified which means that the cells together with the organs are equipped for ultra-low temperature which they will encounter.

This tends to involve replacement of the fluid in the body with injected cryoprotective agents which act as an antifreeze thereby protecting the body from facing damage of being frozen.The body is now prepared for the cold, a process of controlled cooling starts and this is the concluding step before the long-term storage and slowly further cooling of the body.

Reviving/Cure/Treat – Ailment


The body is then placed in a protective insulating bag and thereafter in a cooling box wherein liquid nitrogen is fed in at a steady pace. This process takes place gradually over many days till the body reaches a temperature of -200 degrees Celsius.

Before or after the second stage, the bodies could be transported to the nearest storage facility to complete the process. When it is ready for storage, the body is placed in a liquid nitrogen vessel which is known as cryostate and these vessels do not have any electricity and hence are not affected by any power outages. Companies tend to offer the choice of cryopreservation with the belief that science, technology as well as medicine would one day be capable of reviving patients and also cure or treat the ailment which had killed them and give them another chance at life.

 The Cryonics Institute is of the belief that it would enable people to `buy time till technology is available and thus heal and restore the human body.

Wednesday, 23 November 2016

Tips and tricks to crack Quant Section of CAT

CAT

Master your basics if you need to clear quant section of CAT 2016. All the tricks to conquer quants of CAT 2016 revolves around the basics of quantitative aptitude. Once you are done with the basics, set yourself to solve previous year CAT question papers. In the quant section of CAT, questions are formed from the topics such as number system, geometry, simple and compound Interest, profit and loss, quadratic & linear equation, algebra, permutation and combination, ratio & proportion, time & work and trigonometry. Time management is the most important factor in the preparation strategy of CAT 2016. Without time management, you will not be able to cover all the portions which you should, in order to get high scores in CAT exam.

Quant is one such sections that can get your score up easily if you have a strong quantitative base and proper amount of practice. You can as well solve the practice papers in real exam mode i.e. by setting the time limit and atmosphere like actual CAT exam. Quant is all technical and so, there is no theoretical portion to learn or to grasp. Quant is all about formulas and practice. Solving questions of different kind can give you an idea about the application of correct formulas or theorems instantly and it ultimately helps in saving the time during the paper.

Tips and Tricks

You can try out following tips and tricks to tackle with quants section of CAT 2016:


  • Build up your basic concepts
    First and foremost, thing is to build up your basic knowledge of quantitative ability concepts. Only this can help you in solving more questions in less time. You must not skip any topic with the mind that I can skip the questions based on a particular topic. Each section is equally important and crucial. You must at least have the basic knowledge of each section so that no question goes out without an attempt 
  • Prefer a planned approach
    Make a schedule according to the CAT syllabus. Pinpoint your weak and strong areas and allot the time accordingly. Give more time or days to the weaker sections of the CAT 2016 and relatively less time to the stronger areas. With unplanned approach, it sometime happens that you miss out some of the topics or sections, but with a planned approach you can keep record of all the sections you have prepared and the ones which are still left out 
  • Watch out for Data Interpretation
    It usually happens that students take data interpretation very lightly and don’t give ample time to the said section. But this can be proved as a huge mistake, as the particular section of data interpretation needs relatively more time and practice than any other sub-section of quant in CAT 2016. So, give more time to DT even if you feel you need not to. Solve as much questions of data interpretation as you can, brush up your concepts of data interpretation. 
  • Shortcuts are superficial
     There is no shortcut to help you out in quants. Only shortcut to solve quants is clear concepts and practice work. Only strong concepts and practice work can help you out in solving questions without wasting much time during CAT 2016. Practicing all types of question gives you an insight about the nature of question and that helps you in applying the right formula and in solving the question without wasting much time. So, forget shortcuts and sharpen your mind 
  •  Little black book of learning
    Jot down anything and everything you find useful. You can make a little diary of any important formula or concept which you feel important and that there is a need for you to remember that particular formula or concept. Keep revising those notes whenever you find time to. This little black of learning can prove to be of a great help in sharpening your knowledge of formulas, concepts and definitions 
  •  Previous year papers
    Solving previous year papers is one of the most important things you can do to prepare for quants section of CAT 2016. This can give you a clear idea about the type and level of questions that are asked in CAT exam. Along with that, solving previous year papers can let you calculate the time you take to solve one question. And so, you can practice and improve your speed of solving questions. Sometimes, it happens that we do prepare and practice a lot but not in the right direction. This direction to solve right level and kind of questions that are asked in CAT 2016 is given by previous year papers 
  •  No scope for stress
    Taking stress of syllabus and time is not going to help you in any way. Stay focused and keep your cool so that your mind can concentrate completely on the preparation of quants. Stress can create confusion for you in the application of right formula at the right time, which is a very important factor while dealing with quants section of CAT 2016.

Friday, 18 November 2016

Cough Variant Asthma

Asthma

Cough Variant Asthma - Dry Non-Productive Cough


A person suffering from Cough Variant Asthma - CVA is a kind of asthma wherein the patient tends to have a dry non-productive cough. With regards to other types of asthma, patient with cough variant asthma tends to have no traditional asthma symptoms such as wheezing or shortness of breath. Though CVA does not have many symptoms with regular asthma, it tends to affect the body in many related ways such as

  •  Increase the risk of emerging allergic diseases 
  •  Increase sensitivity of the airways 
  •  Narrows as well as swells the airways disrupting the flow of air
Generally classic asthma tends to have more grave consequences than CVA but around 30 to 40% of the adults with cough variant asthma seem to develop classic asthma. Hence it is important to identify the signs and symptoms in order to have a timely treatment.

If cough variant asthma is not treated in time it could progress into classic asthma and though cough variant asthma is not serious, classic asthma could be rather risky. Besides cough the symptoms comprise of difficulty in breathing, chest tightness, shortness of breath, wheezing and asthma attacks wherein the air is unable to reach the lungs owing to the narrowing of the airways.Causes of cough variant asthma is not made clear but it tends to appear after exposure to allergens, breathing in cold air, due to upper respiratory infection such as sinusitis, taking beta blockers a kind of drug which is used in treating high blood pressure, heart disease, migraine and aspirin. A connection between asthma and allergies is present and around 80% of all asthma patients also tend to have nasal allergies.

Immunology Link


Since allergies are the outcome of the immune system overreacting to a substance which should not usually result in a reaction, there could also be an immunology link to cough variant asthma. Some may be at a great risk of suffering from cough variant asthma together with the other allergic diseases. Being aware of the risk factors for this disease and if the patient is suffering from it, it could help the doctor in making a diagnosis. Some of the risk factors comprise of:

  •  Suffering from another allergic condition 
  •  Having regular asthma 
  •  Having a relative suffering from asthma 
  •  Being overweight 
  •  Smoking or exposure to cast-off smoke 
  •  Exposure to environmental or occupational irritants
Treatment for cough variant asthma is said to be the same as in the case of classic asthma though the treatment may differ and could comprise a mixture of the following:

  •  Inhaled corticosteroid or inhale anti-inflammatory drugs which tends to ease and prevent 
  •  Rescue inhalers or inhalers which tend to lessen inflammation rapidly when an asthma attack arises 
  •  Combination inhalers which combine both preventive medicines as well as fast-responding medicines 
  •  Preventive oral medications which work in keeping the airways open
The best treatment is avoiding cough variants asthma symptoms from flaring up. People who have been prescribed medication for prevention of asthma symptoms need to observe the instructions provided by their physicians to prevent episodes and to keep it from worsening. Precautions also needs to be taken to lessen the risk of developing asthma and to lower the risk, one should have a healthy weight, be aware of their personal risk factors, manage any allergic conditions correctly and quit smoking.They should also avoid cast-off smoke together with other environmental as well as occupational irritants.

Tuesday, 1 November 2016

Hair Straighteners Pose Child Burn Risk


Hair Straighteners
Hair straightener threat

Joshua, who is only 10 months old is 1 out of 100 children to be admitted in hospital who suffer from burns caused by hair straighteners. The straightener fell off the table and on his harm causing a burn. It had just been switch off but was yet very hot. The burn units from the UK say that one in every twenty cases of children being admitted for child burns the previous year were due to hair straighteners. As a result, the ask parents to be cautious.

Thinner skin

Data from the database of the international burns injury illustrate that there were three hundred and ninety two children admitted in UK in the year 2015 to the specialist unit for calamities that were caused by hair straighteners.

Electrical Safety First a charity says that most of the calamities happen when children reach for or end up touching hair straighteners that are still hot. Hair straighteners and curling irons have the potential to reach upto the temperature of 235 degree Celsius and maintain their temperature up to forty minutes even after power supply is cut off. Emma Apter from the same charity stated that parents tend to run from pillar to post in the day and even though they would not prefer to add on more tasks, it is necessary to keep hair straigteners out of the way of toddlers.

We advice manufacturing companies to take into consideration steps to grant safer protective measures by granting a better way of storage for their respective products. From the Children’s Burns Trust, Paul Fuller cautioned that since the skin of children tend to be about fifteen times thinner than those of adults therefore they are more prone to have severe burns.

He also said that a burn caused to a child may require years of continuous surgeries as the toddler ages, as damaged tissue does not multiply to form a new layer of skin. Fortunately for Joshua the burns are in the process of healing post 3 weeks being in a bandage. His mother named Josie said that the doctors will keep an eye on his arm and observe if any scarring will occur.

She is now at ease as her son is now playing like before and makes use of his arm like before. She also mentioned that was in shock and immediately began panicking when the incident took place. The whole thing happened in a jiffy. She was getting ready to leave for work and had switched off the straightener and placed it on a table out of his reach.

Joshua had just began to crawl and she misjudged how swiftly he could get to the table. He ended up pulling the cord and as a result the hot straightener fell. She was not aware that the straightener could remain so hot even when they were turned off. The awareness about this should be made and spread so such calamities can be kept at bay.

Serious burns – what to do:
  • Immediately place burned area under running cold water for at least 20 minutes and get rid of all jewellery and clothes except if its melted or has stuck to the skin. 
  • Cover the area which is burnt with Clingfilm or a germ free dressing.