Showing posts with label infection. Show all posts
Showing posts with label infection. Show all posts

Friday, 11 August 2017

Size matters: for bacteria, smaller is better for causing superbug infections

small cells

New Insight – Common Hospital Superbugs Cause Infection

A fresh understanding has been discovered into how one of the most public hospital superbugs tend to cause infection, something which could have been utilised to develop fresh antibiotic treatments, by the scientists at the University of Sheffield. Infection is harmful which can be due to micro-organisms that are considered as germs.

Micro-organisms or microbes are said to be living organisms which seem to be so miniature in size that they are not seen without the help of a very powerful microscope and they are microscopic. The micro-organisms which tend to cause infection are called pathogens. Bacteria viruses, pathogenic fungi together with the parasites are said to be some examples of micro-organisms which tend to cause the infection.

Led by researchers from the Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, of the University of Sheffield had explored the Enterococcus faecalis, a kind of bacteria which is usually found in the digestive tracts of humans and multi-resistant to antibiotics, could overcome the other microorganisms causing life-threatening infections. E-faecalis is often responsible in causing hospital-acquired infection like urinary tract infections, heart valve infections and bacteraemia, but the scientist presently tend to have little knowledge regarding the same.

Study – Formation of Short Chains of Cells

The University of Sheffield-led research team has now established several difficult mechanisms directing the maintenance of the distinctive shape of E. faecalis which tend to form cell pairs or short chains of cells. The team has disclosed that the development of short chains of cells tends to be a vital element in stopping bacteria from being recognised as a risk by the immune system.

This in turn allows infection to spread. Dr Stephane Mesnage, leading the research from the University of Sheffield stated that `their study describes that the formation of short chains of cells by E. faecalis seems to be a critical step in causing an infection. Bacteria which tend to form long chains of cells are recognised efficiently and immersed by the host immune system while short chains of cells are efficiently recognised and immersed by the host immune system and spread in the host to cause infection’.

He further added that `E. faecalis is an opportunistic pathogen and is naturally resistant to a wide range of antibiotics, inclusive of synthetic penicillin derivatives. Following an antibiotic treatment, E. faecalis can out-compete other microorganisms in causing infection. Their work recommends that targeting the mechanisms controlling the formation of short chains of cells could be a novel strategy for developing new treatments to combat E. faecalis infections’.

Developing Radical Solutions

Bacterial size matters, research – multiple mechanisms controlling septum cleavage and diplococcus formation are said to be critical for the virulence of the opportunistic pathogen Enterococcus faecalis, has been published in PLOS Pathogens – Bacterial size matters (PLOS Pathogens journal. Discoveries from the study construct on the position of the University of Sheffield at the forefront of the world-class research into infectious diseases.

The scientists at the University have been developing radical solutions to the global threat of disease together with antimicrobial resistance as a means of signature research projects like Florey, Imagine and the Sheffield Antimicrobial Resistance Network – SHAMROK.

Moreover the University has also been training the next generation of highly skilled scientist through its undergraduate as well as postgraduate programmes in locating some new exciting approaches to bioscience in attempting some of the biggest biomedical issues in the world. Having almost 27,000 of the brightest students from across 140 countries and learning together with 1,200 of the best academics from all over the world, the University of Sheffield is said to be one of the most leading universities in the world.

Being one of the members of the prestigious Russell Group of leading-led institutions of UK, Sheffield tends to provide outstanding teaching and research excellence across an extensive range of disciplines.

Power of Discovery/Understanding – Means of Transforming the World

With the combination of the power of discovery together with understanding, staff and students at the university have been devoted in discovering new means of transforming the world in which we tend to live in. Sheffield is believed to be the only university to be included in The Sunday Times 100 Best Not-For-Profit Organisation to Work for 2017 and has been voted as number one university in the UK for Student Satisfaction by Times Higher Education in 2014.

 It has also won four Queen’s Anniversary Prizes in the last decade in recognition of the amazing contribution to the intellectual, economic, cultural as well as the social life, to the United Kingdom. It is said that Sheffield had six Nobel Prize winners among former staff as well as students and its alumni tend to be holding positions of exceptional responsibilities together with influence all across the globe thus making a significant contributions in their selected fields.

The global research partners together with the clients comprise of Boeing, Rolls-Royce, Unilever, AstraZeneca, Glaxo SmithKline, Siemens and Airbus together with many UK and overseas government agencies and charitable foundations.

Monday, 8 May 2017

Untreatable Superbug Infections on the Rise

Life-Taking Superbug is on the Go! 

With the increase in pollution, global warming, malnutrition, hybridization of vegetables and fruits the entire world is being engulfed by the vicious circle of health disorders. As per the data provided by NHS depicts, that there is a continuous increase in incurable superbug and this leads to the increase in number of sick people affected by CPE. The figures were where much less in 2002, where only 3 were heard to be affected by CPE per annum in 2002 and that has now increased to 2000 per annum. The data reveals that the life of almost every individual is at stake. The health syndromes are declining day by day with the rise in superbugs.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention based in US has suggested that 40 to 50 % of the patients inflicted by CPE infection in blood loses their life. The figures seem to increase day by day, as the 66 NHS Trusts in England, Public Health England said that since 2009, approximately 81 number of people succumbed to this deadly CPE disease and the numbers of death are increasing day by day heading up to 2000 every year.

The matter seems to get worst in coming days as Professor Nigel Brown, who is a member of the society for General Microbiology, says that the bacteria that carries CPE is almost everywhere. He also revealed an astonishing fact to the Sky News, saying that this bacterium is very much present in our guts and some of these CPE bacteria is strong enough to completely shatter the Carbapenem antibiotic by nullifying its capacity to fight these infectious superbugs.

These bacteria are so powerful that it gets transmitted into your blood from the gut and makes you sick enough to send you to the hospital and it is so infectious that it gets transmitted from one person to another by just a minor contact and once you are inflicted by these disease they spread rapidly and overpowers your entire body attacking your blood and then it finally becomes almost next to impossible to get immediate relief from its consequences. It breaks down your metabolism and curbs down the functioning of your entire system and the final destination is the hospitals bed and if the situation is not brought under control immediately then the patient can even die.

The death and survival rates are still not clear to depict that whether the survival rates have decreases or increased, as some health institutions have still not provided the accurate figures of death and survival rates so that a conclusion can be drawn to denote who is on the winning side the deadly superbug or the advanced medical treatments.

Emily Morris, who has survived in the case of superbug infection depending on antibiotics, shares her experience and she has acclaimed this sickness to be more powerful and hence it cannot be defeated so easily and in most cases death is inevitable. So, proper measures should be taken by the health experts to save the world from this life taking bug.

Saturday, 27 June 2015

Herpetic whitlow

Herpetic Whitlow – An Abscess at the end of Finger 

Herpetic Whitlow or whitlow finger is a fingertip infection, an abscess at the end of the finger which is due to an infection with the herpes simplex virus. It causes blister and pain which could be intense, affecting the fleshy part of the fingertip and tends to become red andswollen, besides being painful. White blister are formed beneath the skin of the finger which could break releasing fluid and crusting over.

Two types of herpes simplex virus - HSV, type 1 and type 2, are responsible for herpetic whitlow and these viruses could also cause cold sores as well as genital herpes. If one tends to have cold sore or genital herpes and touch the sore area of the skin, transferring the virus from the mouth or genitals to the finger, the herpetic whitlow could develop as a secondary infection. It could also develop if one tends to touch the sore or blister of another person who may be infected with herpetic whitlow. Besides this if a person has a weak immune system, they could also be vulnerable to this disease.

Symptoms of the Disease 

The first symptoms of this disease begin with swelling on the finger causing mild to severe pain and the area which is affected is red and swollen. The area of the thumb or fingers tends to develop lesion and the skin of the affected area gets tender and painful. Some may even experience a burning and tingling feeling and those affected with this disease would find it difficult to function with their daily routine tasks.

Some may also suffer from painful and swollen lymph nodes which could be located under their arms and there are cases of this disease resulting in high fever though they are extremely rare. HSV infection is contagious and can spread by getting in contact with skin lesions which could be infected which tend to appear as small sores or blisters round the nose mouth, buttocks and genitals. However it could develop at any place on the skin and these sores could recur from time to time in the same areas.

Treatment & Medication

Several infections by herpes simplex are easy to diagnose but there could be instances where a swab from the infected skin would need to be tested in the lab by viral culture which would take some days to grow. Besides this,tests of the blood would also be taken. These infections would disappear on their own if not treated, though drugs could reduce the symptoms and lessen the duration of outbreaks. There is no cure for infections of herpes simplex virus.

Though herpetic whitlow symptoms tend to eventually leave on their own, the physician generally prescribes medication like antivirals to overcome the symptoms and end any infection from spreading to others. When the infection tends to get more severe, it would need oral antibiotic pills to treat the areas which are specially infected by a bacterium and though it is rare, this type of infection could return again and can be treated with the same oral antiviral drugs.

Saturday, 28 January 2012

What is a root canal therapy?

Root canal therapy, also called endodontic treatment or root canal, is a common and safe procedure to treat an infection located in the dental pulp. Years ago, damaged and diseased teeth were removed. But the arrival of modern dental techniques has enabled dentists to protect and repair damaged teeth with root canal treatment. The non-infected teeth removed or repaired will be a source of infection, infecting the body and weakening the immune system. As the damaged teeth do not heal themselves, as and when their condition deteriorates, they will continue to damage the bone, causing extreme pain.

How do teeth become infected?

The teeth become infected when the pulp, the soft tissue of nerves and vessels that are located inside the tooth, are injured. The deep cavities, cracked or fractured teeth and multiple fillings are common causes of injury to the dental pulp. Severe periodontal disease may be another cause. All these situations can allow germs to enter the pulp chamber, causing infection and disease. When this happens, the pulp can not repair itself, so it dies. Without treatment, pus generated by the infection eventually accumulates at the end of the root and causes the appearance of a hole in the jaw bone, called an abscess. The abscess can cause damage to the bone that is located around the tooth.

How do you know you have an infected tooth?

Although some people have no symptoms, the following signs are commonly seen in dental infections and may indicate the need to appeal to the probable root canal treatment:
  •     sensitivity to hot and cold, which can also be caused by abrasion of the tooth brush
  •     pain or twinge when the jaw crunches, which can also be caused by the friction of the teeth
  •     swelling, which can also be caused by periodontal disease
  •     a severe tooth decay
  •     a bad taste in mouth
What is the treatment?

Patients undergoing root canal treatment will have to go once or more to the dentist or endodontist (a dentist who specializes in problems of dental pulp). During treatment, the pulp is removed and the patient pulp chamber and root canals are cleaned and sealed. The following steps should help to clarify the procedure:

Step 1

It pierces the crown of the tooth to reach the pulp chamber.

Step 2

The length of root canals is determined, the dental pulp in poor condition is carefully removed, and the canals are cleaned, enlarged and shaped. Medication may be inserted into the pulp chamber and root canals to help eliminate germs and prevent infection.

Step 3

If the tooth is badly infected, it is possible to leave the tooth open for a few days to drain the infection. A temporary filling is placed in the crown to protect the tooth between visits to the dentist. If the procedure is completed in one day, the channels are closed and sealed. Sometimes antibiotics are prescribed to help control the infection.

Step 4

A crown or a filling is usually placed on the tooth for better protection.

The product used to fill the root canal will probably last a lifetime, but the filling or crown may need to be replaced after a certain time.

Sunday, 18 December 2011

Influenza and heart disease

People with heart disease are at risk of flu complications and acute infection. Among the rank heart disease congestive heart failure, coronary artery disease and congenital heart disease (an abnormality of the heart present at birth).

People with heart disease are more likely to require hospitalization and often their impairment empire. For example, if you are a person with congestive heart failure, you may find that your symptoms get worse when you have the flu - it is possible that your breathing is more difficult or swollen ankles or you have to lassitude. Unfortunately, people with heart disease are more likely to die from flu or its complications that people with any other chronic medical conditions.

People with heart disease are not the only high risk of influenza complications and acute infection. People with diabetes, asthma, or have weakened immune systems, and many others with chronic medical conditions are also at risk. Are you at risk of flu complications?

You can take a few provisions to protect yourself from the flu:

  • wash your hands the right way (at least 20 seconds with soap and water) and frequently;
  • avoid places where there are lots of people, and stay home if you think you have the flu;
  • cough or sneeze into the crook of your elbow (not your hand!)
  • eat healthy foods and practice regular physical exercise to strengthen your immune system;
  • Get vaccinated. Your doctor may recommend yearly influenza vaccine and pneumococcal vaccine;
  • control your heart disease. Take your medicine and follow the treatment plan recommended by your health care provider.
If you get the flu anyway, it is essential to make an appointment with your doctor as soon as you notice the first signs of flu symptoms. Do not wait until your symptoms worse. People with heart disease should make an appointment with their doctor immediately so that we can begin treatment. Early treatment with antiviral medication can help to reduce the risk of influenza complications. Talk to your doctor taking advantage of the Guide for the discussion with the doctor.