Showing posts with label type 1 diabetes. Show all posts
Showing posts with label type 1 diabetes. Show all posts

Friday, 16 June 2017

New Transplant Technology Could Benefit Patients with Type 1 Diabetes

Technology being used to cure Type 1 Diabetes

Diabetes is being noticed as a very obvious disease in people across the globe. The disease is the store house of several other diseases, and it slowly degenerates your body. The immediate consequences of diabetes may not be severe, but it has gruesome long term measures and can make you subjected to further health issues. It includes lot of restrictions in terms of food habits.

A diabetic person needs to follow a strict diet, as that would only help him to survive this serious ailment. Several approaches are being developed to free the world from this malicious disease. Many medical developments are taking place in this regard.

Approximate 1.25 million residents of America suffer from type 1 diabetes, which is also denoted as juvenile diabetes. This is disease is known for the body’s inability to generate insulin. In order to bring type 1 diabetes under control; patients are advised to test the level of glucose in their body on a frequent basis, and sometimes they are even advised to inject themselves with insulin, so that a safe balance is maintained and the body remains less prone to diseases. But some patients are reported to suffer from life-threatening consequences because of diabetes that is symptoms of hypoglycemic disorders are found.

To avoid all the fatal consequences of this ailment Garcia and collaborators along with post doctorate researchers and most importantly Jessica Weaver, is out for their venture to locate a restricting measure of diabetes. They are up for an innovative measure that would include transplantation of cells.

They are intending to develop a new hydrogel substance made of polymer, which could be easily degradable. This would be used to deliver cells through injection into the human body and it would consist of a gel based protein identified as vascular endothelial growth factor, that would result in strengthening the blood vessels into the cells transplanted in the body.

Garcia, after the experiment reported that this transplanted cells would require a lot of oxygenation and the connection to the body’s circulatory system should be high so that it grabs the sense of the level of glucose in one’s body and transport the insulin accordingly.

She has also observed that other than transporting insulin it is also capable of forming new blood vessels to nourish the existing cells. In this way, the immune syndrome of one’s body that gets shattered due to diabetes; is restored back.

Though, this measure seems innovative, yet it is not that easy as it sounds. Doctors from several decades have been trying to transplant pancreatic islets into the human body, but about 60 percent of the islets die immediately after they are transplanted because they are separated from the supply of blood while transplanting and are killed by the body’s immune response because of suddenly and directly being injected into the blood stream and fortunately those that survive, die within few months. So, the process is risky and chances of success is very less, but certainly it builds the ground for more innovations in treating type 1 diabetes.

Saturday, 30 March 2013

Complications of Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes can affect many important organs in your body, including your heart, blood vessels, nerves, eyes and kidneys. Keep your levels close to blood sugar to normal over time can significantly reduce the risk of many complications. Long-term complications of type 1 diabetes develop gradually over the years. The earlier you develop diabetes - and the less controlled your blood sugar - the higher the risk of complications. Eventually, diabetes complications may be disabling or fatal. It can readily affect heart and blood vessels. Diabetes greatly increases your risk of various cardiovascular problems, including coronary artery disease with chest pain (angina), heart attack, stroke, narrowing of the arteries (atherosclerosis) and high blood pressure. In fact, about 65 percent of people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes die of some type of heart disease or vascular disease, according to the American Heart Association.

 Excess sugar can damage the walls of the tiny blood vessels (capillaries) that nourish your nerves, especially in the legs. This can cause tingling, numbness, burning or pain that usually begins at the tips of the toes or fingers and gradually spreads upward. Poorly controlled blood sugar can make you end up losing all sense of feeling in the affected limbs. Damage to the nerves that affect the gastrointestinal tract can cause problems with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea or constipation. For men, erectile dysfunction can be a problem. The kidneys contain millions of tiny clusters of blood vessels that filter waste from your blood. Diabetes can damage this delicate filtering system. Severe damage can lead to kidney failure or irreversible end-stage renal disease, requiring dialysis or a kidney transplant. Diabetes can damage the blood vessels of the retina (diabetic retinopathy), potentially leading to blindness.

 Diabetes also increases the risk of other serious vision problems such as cataracts and glaucoma. Nerve damage in the feet or poor circulation in the feet, increases the risk of various foot complications. If it is not treated, cuts and blisters can become serious infections. Serious damage may require toe amputation of the foot or even leg. Diabetes may leave you more susceptible to skin problems, including bacterial and fungal infections. Gum infections can also be a concern, especially if you have a history of poor dental hygiene. Diabetes can cause a decrease in the normal bone mineral density, increasing your risk of osteoporosis. It may result in serious complications during pregnancy. High levels of blood sugar can be dangerous for the mother and baby. The risk of miscarriage, stillbirth defects and birth are increased when diabetes is not well controlled. For the mother, diabetes increases the risk of diabetic eye problems, pregnancy-induced hypertension. Hearing impairments may occur more often in people with diabetes.

Thursday, 7 March 2013

Treatments for type 1 diabetes

Treatment for type 1 diabetes is a lifelong commitment to: Take insulin, Exercise regularly and maintain a healthy weight, Eating healthy food, Glucose monitoring. The goal is to keep your blood sugar in the blood as close to normal as possible to delay or prevent complications. Although there are exceptions, generally, the goal is to keep your sugar levels in the blood during the day between 80 and 120 mg / dL (4.4 to 6.7 mmol / L) and your numbers lie between 100 and 140 mg / dL (5.6 to 7.8 mmol / L). If managing your diabetes seems overwhelming, take it one day at a time. And do not forget that you are not alone. You will work closely with your diabetes care team - doctor, diabetes educator and dietitian - to keep your levels of blood sugar as close to normal as possible.

 Anyone who has type 1 diabetes needs insulin therapy to survive. Types of insulin are many and include: Rapid-acting insulin Acting insulin Intermediate options Examples are insulin (Humulin R, Novolin R, other), NPH insulin (Humulin N, Novolin N), insulin lispro (Humalog), insulin aspart (NovoLog), insulin glargine ( Lantus) and insulin detemir (Levemir). Depending on your needs, your doctor may prescribe a mixture of insulin types to use throughout both day and night. An inhaled insulin (Exubera) was previously available, but the manufacturer stopped selling the drug because too few people used it. Since it was removed from the market, the drug was associated with an increase in lung cancer among people with a history of smoking. However, because the number of additional cases of lung cancer is so small, it is not clear whether there is a link with the drug. If you used Exubera and history of smoking, discuss these concerns with your doctor. Options for injection of insulin in your body currently include injection and infusion insulin pump. Insulin cannot be taken orally to lower blood sugar because stomach enzymes interfere with insulin action. Insulin injections can be done using: A fine needle and syringe. An insulin pen is a device that resembles a pen ink, except that the cartridge is filled with insulin. An insulin pump is a device the size of a cell phone worn on the outside of your body. A tube connects a reservoir of insulin to a catheter which is inserted under the skin of the abdomen. There is also a wireless pump option is available in most areas. You wear a bucket filled with insulin in your body which has a tiny catheter that is inserted under the skin. Clove of insulin can be worn on the abdomen, lower back, or a leg or an arm. Programming is performed with a wireless device that communicates with the container. Whatever pump you use, it is programmed to dispense specific amounts of rapid-acting insulin automatically. This stable dose of insulin is known as base flow, and replaces the long-acting insulin you use.

When you eat, you can program the pump with the amount of carbohydrates you eat and your blood sugar in progress, and it will give you what is called a "bolus" dose of insulin to cover your meals and correct if your blood sugar is high. Some research has shown an insulin pump to be more effective in controlling sugar levels in the blood than the injections. Oral medications are sometimes prescribed as well, such as: Pramlintide (Symlin). An injection of this drug before you eat can slow the passage of food in the stomach to reduce sharp rise in blood sugar that occurs after meals. Antihypertensive: Even if you do not have high blood pressure, your doctor may prescribe medicines known as angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) receptor blockers or angiotensin II inhibitors (ARBs), because these medications can help keep your kidneys healthy in addition to lowering blood pressure. It is recommended that people with diabetes have blood pressure less than 130/80 millimeters of mercury (mmHg). Cholesterol: As antihypertensive, your doctor can not wait until your cholesterol is high before he or she prescribes cholesterol, called statins. Guidelines are more aggressive cholesterol for people with diabetes because of the high risk of heart disease. The American Diabetes Association recommends that low-density lipoprotein (LDL, or "bad") cholesterol below 100 mg / dL (2.6 mmol / L) and lipoprotein hautoudensité (HDL, or "good") rate Cholesterol is more than 50 mg / dL (1.3 mmol / L). Triglycerides, another type of fat in the blood are IDMG / dL quandmmol / Lont least 150 mg / dL (1.7 mmol / L). A healthy diet and counting carbohydrates, Physical activity, Glucose monitoring, Situation concerns- Experimental Treatments do well.

 Pancreas transplant: With a successful pancreas transplant, you no longer need insulin. Pancreas transplant but are not always successful - and the procedure has serious risks. You would need a powerful immunosuppressive life drugs to prevent organ rejection. These drugs can have serious side effects, including an increased risk of infection and organ damage. Because side effects may be more dangerous than diabetes, pancreas transplants are usually reserved for those who have very difficult to control diabetes. Islet cell transplantation: Researchers are experimenting with transplantation of islets of Langerhans, which provides new insulin-producing cells from a donor pancreas. Although this experimental procedure has encountered problems in the past, new techniques and better drugs to prevent rejection of islet cells can improve their chances of future success.

However, islet transplantation still requires the use of immunosuppressive drugs, and just as he did with his own natural islet cells, the body destroys the cells of transplanted islets often taking the time to insulin short duration. In addition, sufficient islet cells are not available for this treatment to become more widespread. Stem cell transplantation: In a 2007 study in Brazil, a small number of people newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes were able to stop using insulin after being treated with stem cells made from their own blood. Although stem cell transplants - which involves stopping the immune system, then build it again - can be risky, the technique could one day offer an additional treatment option for type 1 diabetes.

Wednesday, 6 March 2013

Diagnosis of type 1 diabetes

In June 2010, an international committee of experts from the American Diabetes Association, European Association for the Study of Diabetes and the International Diabetes Federation recommended that the type 1 diabetes screening include the: Glaciated hemoglobin (A1C) test. This blood test indicates your level of blood sugar average for the last two or three months. It operates by measuring the percentage of sugar in the blood bound to hemoglobin, the transport protein of oxygen in red blood cells. The higher your blood sugar in the blood, the more hemoglobin you'll have with sugar attached. HbA1c of 6.5 percent or more than two separate tests indicates you have diabetes. Score between 5.7 and 6.4 percent is considered prediabetes, which indicates a high risk of developing diabetes. If the A1C test is not available, or if you have certain conditions that can make the A1C test inaccurate - as if you are pregnant or have a rare form of hemoglobin (known as a hemoglobin variant) - Your doctor may use the following tests to diagnose diabetes: Random blood glucose test.

 A blood sample will be at a random time. Glucose values are expressed in milligrams per deciliter (mg / dL) or milli moles per liter (mmol / L). Whatever time you ate a random blood sugar of 200 mg / dL (11.1 mmol / L) or higher suggest diabetes, especially when paired with one of the signs and symptoms of diabetes such as frequent urination and extreme thirst. Level mg / DL140 mg / mmol / L 8 mmol / L) and 199 mg / dL (11.0 mmol / L) is considered prediabetes, which puts you at higher risk of developing diabetes. Fasting blood glucose test: A blood sample will be taken after an overnight fast. A fasting blood glucose level less than 100 mg / dL (5.6 mmol / L) is normal. A fasting blood glucose level from 100 to 125 mg / dL (5.6 to 6.9 mmol / L) is regarded pre diabetes. If it is 126 mg / dL (7 mmol / L) or higher on two separate tests, you have diabetes. A level of 100 mg / dL (5.6mg / DLA) to mmol / Lg / dL (6.9 mmol considered the pre diabetes

. If you are diagnosed with diabetes, your doctor may also perform blood tests to check the auto antibodies that are common in nature 1 diabetes. These tests allow your doctor to distinguish between type 1 and type 2diabetes. The presences of ketones - byproducts of fat breakdown - in your urine suggest the type 1 diabetes, rather than type 2. Once you have been diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, you visit your doctor regularly to ensure proper management of diabetes. During these visits, the doctor will check your A1C. Your goal A1C target may vary depending on your age and other factors, but generally American Diabetes Association recommends that A1C less than 7 percent, which translates into estimated average glucose of 154 mg / dL (8.5 mmol / L). In comparison with the daily repetition of blood glucose, A1C test indicates better how your diabetes treatment plan is working. HbA1c levels can indicate the need for a change in your insulin regimen or meal plan. In addition to HbA1c, the doctor will also take samples of blood and urine tests regularly to check your cholesterol, thyroid function, liver function and renal function and test for celiac disease. The doctor will also examine you to assess your blood pressure, and he or she will check the sites where you test your blood sugar levels and administer insulin.

Saturday, 2 March 2013

Risk factors for type 1 diabetes!

There are not many known risk factors for type 1 diabetes, but researchers continue to find new factors about it. Some risk factors are:

 A family history:
Anyone with a parent or sibling with type 1 diabetes has a slightly increased risk of developing the disease.

 The presence of certain genes indicates an increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes. In some cases - usually through a clinical trial - genetic testing can be performed to determine if a person has a family history of type 1 diabetes have an increased risk of developing the disease.

The incidence of type 1 diabetes tends to increase as you travel away from the equator. People living in Finland and Sardinia have the highest incidence of type 1 diabetes - about two to three times higher than the United States and 400 times higher than that of people living in Venezuela.

 The possible risk factors for type 1 diabetes include:

 Viral exposure. Exposure to Epstein-Barr virus, coxsackievirus, cytomegalovirus or mumps can trigger the auto immune destruction of islet cells, or the virus may directly infect pancreatic islet cells.

 Low levels of Vitamin D:
 Research suggests that vitamin D may protect our body against type 1 diabetes. However, early consumption of cow's milk - a common source of vitamin D - has been linked to an increased risk of type 1diabetes.

Other dietary factors:
Omega-3 may offer some protection against type 1 diabetes. Drinking water that contains nitrates may increase the risk.

 In addition, the timing of introduction of cereals in the diet can affect a baby's risk of type diabetes’s. A clinical trial showed that between ages 3 and 7 months seems to be the perfect time to introduce cereal. Some other possible risk factors include, if your mother was younger than age 25 when she gave birth to you, or if your mother had preeclampsia during pregnancy. Being born with jaundice is a potential risk factor, as the experience of a respiratory infection just after your birth.

Monday, 25 February 2013

Causes of Type 1 Diabetes

The exact cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown. Scientists tells that in most people with type 1 diabetes, their body's immune system - which normally fights bacteria and viruses - mistakenly destroys the insulin-producing (islet) cells in the pancreas. Genetics may play a role in this process, and exposure to certain viruses can trigger the disease. Whatever the cause, once the islet cells are destroyed, you will produce little or no insulin. Normally, the hormone insulin helps glucose get into your cells to provide energy to your muscles and tissues.

 Insulin is secreted in the pancreas, a gland located behind the stomach. When everything is working fine, once you eat, the pancreas secretes insulin into the bloodstream. As insulin circulates, it acts as key unlocking microscopic doors that allow sugar to enter body cells. Insulin lowers the blood sugar levels in the blood, and the blood sugar in the blood drops, the fact of insulin secretion by the pancreas. The liver acts as a glucose storage and manufacturing center.

When insulin levels are low and you have not eaten for some time, then the liver start to converts stored glycogen into glucose to keep your glucose level in the blood at a normal level. In type 1 diabetes, none of this happens because there is no insulin so that the glucose into the cells. Thus, instead of being transported into the cells, sugar builds up in the blood, where it can cause life-threatening complications. The cause of diabetes type 1 is different from the cause of the most familiar type 2 diabetes. In type 2diabetes, the islet cells are still functioning, but the body becomes resistant to insulin or the pancreas does not produce enough insulin, or both.

Wednesday, 20 February 2013

Symptoms of Type 1 Diabetes

Signs and symptoms of type 1 diabetes can appear quickly and may include:

 Increased thirst and frequent urination. As excess sugar builds up in the blood, fluid is pulled from your tissues. This may leave you thirsty. As a result, you may drink - and urinate - more than usual. And the following are the symptoms of type 1 diabetes

 Extreme hunger:

Without enough insulin to move sugar into the cells, your muscles and organs are depleted of energy. This triggers intense hunger that may persist even after you eat. Without insulin, the sugar in your food never reaches lack energy for your tissues.

 Weight loss:

Despite eating more than usual to relieve hunger, you may lose weight - sometimes rapidly. Without sugar supplies energy, your muscle tissues and fat stores may simply reduce.

 Fatigue: If your cells are deprived of sugar, you may become tired and irritable.

 Blurred vision:
If your blood sugar in the blood is too high, fluid may be pulled from your tissues - including the lenses of your eyes. This can affect your ability to focus clearly. Consult your doctor if you are concerned about diabetes or if you notice signs and type 1 diabetes symptoms.

Friday, 15 February 2013

What is Type 1 Diabetes?

Type1 diabetes, once referred to as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin, a hormone necessary to allow sugar (glucose) in cells to produce the energy. Type 2 diabetes, which is much more common, occurs when the body becomes resistant to the effects of insulin or does not make enough insulin.

Various factors may contribute to type1 diabetes, including genetics and exposure to certain viruses. Although type1 diabetes usually appears during adolescence, it can develop at any age. Despite active research, type 1 diabetes cannot be cured, although it can be managed. With proper treatment, people with type 1 diabetes can expect to live longer, healthier lives than ever before.

There is nothing you could have done to prevent type 1 diabetes, there is currently no known way to prevent the disease. But researchers are working on the prevention of type 1 diabetes in people who are at high risk of developing the disease, and others working on the prevention of further destruction of pancreatic islet cells in people who are newly diagnosed. Ask your doctor if you may be eligible for one of these tests, but carefully weigh the risks and benefits of all available treatment in a clinical trial. You can find more information on the types of research from Net, a collaboration of researchers on diabetes.