Monday, 24 July 2017

Algorithm That Diagnoses Heart Arrhythmias

Cardiac arrhythmia is in most cases harmless extras without the disease. Both a slowing of the heart rate (bradycardia) and a speeding up of the heart rate (tachycardia) can also become life threatening. Nearly every person is affected by cardiac arrhythmia during his life.


These can be harmless or dangerous. Often they are only subjectively unpleasant ("stumbling-heart") and do not need treatment. However, untreated pre-fibrillation is accompanied by a marked increase in stroke risk. This makes it all the more important to have an early and reliable algorithm diagnosis. However, they can also lead to dangerous incidents and subsequent episodes.

But how can pre-fibrillation be detected when it occurs irregularly and the patient himself often does not notice it? An ECG - that is, the measurement of cardiac currents - is the gold standard in the algorithm diagnosis of atrial fibrillation. In that case, it can help measure cardiac currents over a longer period of time and keep the heart in view all the time. It is important that even small signals and short episodes can be perceived.

Definition and types of cardiac arrhythmia

The normal heart rate is 50 to 100 beats per minute. The heart rate is generally higher in young women than in men, presumably because in men the rest frequency decreases by frequent sports. A heart rate <50 a="" bradycardia="" called="" frequency="" is="" min="" slowed=""> 100 / min at rest is too fast (tachycardia). Both manifestations of cardiac arrhythmia can be life-threatening. They then usually occur as a result of severe structural heart disease, e.g. Heart attack, cardiac insufficiency, or heart valve defect, or in the case of congenital or severe hypertension caused by hypertension.

Cardiac arrhythmia can be divided into disturbances of stimulation and disorders of the excitatory conduction. Causes of ectopic stimulus formation can be increased automatization, abnormal automatism, and triggered activity. Excitation line disturbances can lead to arrhythmias in linear closed conduction pathways or also in the spatial whole cellular network.

Thanks to the computer scientists at Stanford, who developed an algorithm that diagnoses 14 types of Heart defects. These group of Stanford scientists led by Andrew Ng has developed this deep learning algorithm. With the collaboration with the iRhythm – the heartbeat monitoring company, roll up a solid data set that they used to teach a profound neural network model.

The new heart monitor has now been developed for this purpose. The special feature of this heart monitor, which can also be used on an outpatient basis, is its intelligent design. Its not only records the ECG, it also analyzes it and sends the most important episodes on the so-called home monitoring - a technology built into the implant - to the treating physician every day.

Thanks to this close-meshed observation of the cardiac rhythm, can be detected reliably. This is not only crucial for a safe diagnosis at the beginning of the therapy for cardiac arrhythmia- it may also be necessary to keep a close eye on the heart during treatment.

For example an ablation, that is, an intervention for the obliteration of the diseased cardiac muscle tissue, the doctor sees thanks to home monitoring, whether the procedure was successful or if again atrial fibrillation occurs. The physician can control the therapy better, and the patient gains safety.

Wednesday, 19 July 2017

Scientists Have Inserted a Gif of a Horse into Living Bacteria

Mind boggling DNA wonders!


As we know, basic Biology lessons in school and further, for people who have studied in the future, DNA has a wide spectrum usage in genomic studies as well as genetic dispositions in our entire human race. This technology news now run through our news feed every morning. Genes are what differentiates a human being from the rest of the crowd, genes are what we carry from our parents to future generations, and these molecular level proteins ultimately runs the living race in the world. From bacteria, to viruses and human beings- everything is governed by genes.

With inventions running in every genetic lab in the world, current genetic engineers and researches have managed to insert a GIF of a horse into live bacteria. Yes, shocking indeed.

Astonishing inventions!

A GIF of a moving horse has now been successfully incorporated into a bacterium, that too a live one! The genetic tool called CRISPR is often used in the genetic world for data storage purposes. It is a mind boggling wonder tool in the genetic tool which allows genetic professionals to explore the wide spectrum and possibilities of DNA and its uses in the near future. Medicine holds a lot of scope, thanks to this technology.
The technological news says that scientists in Harvard University have managed to incorporate CRISPR associated proteins called Cas1 and Cas2 as primers which will be programmed to work as a computer’s Ctrl-X tool. This enables scientists to manipulate with the DNA segments, interchange them and club them if needed.

Using the Cas1 and 2 sequences, the iconic horse GIF has been encoded and put together with high accuracy. What the CRISPR technology does is, it codes the pixel values of black and white horses and incorporates it into the genomic sequence of a live bacteria! Astonishing indeed!

The results showed spectacular multiplication of the bacteria and also hereditary patterns in the following generations.

The point of this invention is the purpose of data storage. DNA is a great device of data storage, and using this technology as per the technology news, we can access vital information about genomic studies with ease. The amount of data that a single gram of DNA can hold could possibly be information of the entire human race, all crammed into one room, which is truly insane.

DNA technologies have progressed highly over the years and will continue to do so. But with this GIF incorporation, a news meaning and growth of genomic studies and researches have been established. The wide spectrum and diversity of this technology will be a boon to the medicinal world and curing of lethal genetic diseases. Various novel syndromes and anomalies can be detected at such early stages, which would previously be unimaginable. With the hope of further growth of the technological wonders of DNA this new invention is cherished and will possibly change the way medicine is perceived.

Saturday, 1 July 2017

Grape-Based Compounds Kill Colon Cancer Stem Cells in Mice


Resveratrol – Grape Seed Extract – Treatment of Colon Cancer


As per a team of researchers, compounds from grapes could destroy Colon Cancer stem cells in a petri dish as well as in mice. Resveratrol, the compound that is found in grape skins as well as seed could ultimately also lead to treatments of supporting in the prevention of colon cancer according to Jairam K.P. Vanamala, associate professor of food sciences, Pen State.

The second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the U.S. is colorectal cancer as per The American Cancer Society. Vanamala, who is a faculty member at the Penn State Hershey Cancer Institute, had commented that the combination of resveratrol together with grape seed extract is said to be very effective in destroying colon cancer cells and what is learnt is that the combination of these compounds is not toxic to healthy cells.

The researchers reporting their discoveries in a recent issue of BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine recommended that the discoveries tend to make way for clinical testing of compounds on the colon cancer of human. This is said to be the second most common cancer among women and the third in men. If it tends to be successful, the compounds could be utilised in a pill in assisting in the prevention of colon cancer as well as reduce the relapse of the ailment in colon cancer survivors.

Shotgun Approach to Cancer Prevention


Vanamala had commented that they are mainlyconcerned in aiming stem cell since as per cancer stem-cell theory, cancerous tumours are driven by cancer stem cells which are capable of self-renewal, cellular differentiation and also maintain their stem cell-like appearances even after invasion and metastasis.

According to researchers, if taken in low doses, separately, resveratrol together with grape seed extract does not seem to be as effective against cancer stem-cell suppression when they are combined together.According to Vanamala, the combined effect of grape seed extract together with resveratrol could provide clues to the reasoning of why cultures with plant-based diet seems to have lower colon cancer rates.
These diets may naturally be offering a shotgun approach to cancer prevention on utilising an extensive variety of valuable compounds to aim on numerous pathways which cancer stem cells utilise to live.

Advantageous in Promoting Bacterial Diversity


Vanamala further added that this also links well with a plant-based diet which is structured in order that the person gets a bit of diverse categories of plants, of various parts of the plant with different colours of the plant.

 According to Vanamal this could be advantageous not only in promoting bacterial diversity but also in averting chronic diseases together with eradicating the colon cancer stem cells. If the human trials tend to be successful, the compound can be taken in low doses with the prevailing available supplements for grape seed extract as well as resveratrol that are also found in wine.

But he added that there seems to be some more work to be done in order to comprehend the mechanism behind the anti-cancer properties of the grape extract together with the other colourful fruits and vegetables. More study would be focused in discovering the precise anti-cancer compounds as well as enhanced understanding on how those compounds seem to work synergistically in creating much more effective colon-cancer prevention and treatment approaches.

Wednesday, 28 June 2017

Apollo Mission to Drive Therapeutic Innovation

Therapeutic Innovation
Image Credit:Taema

Age of Mounting Biomedical Invention


 Stimulations of a rebellion has given way through hundreds of laboratories which are aiming to cause new medicines that will be faster with less disappointments. This is being led by three UK universities together with three global pharmaceutical corporations. A four strong team has over the past year indulged in hundred meetings with scientist at three UK universities and towards the end of this year would probably tend to have another hundreds of such meetings.

They have been storing the maximum complete sense of what tends to occur at the bench across the three UK universities namely Cambridge, Imperial College London and University College London – UCL, which anyone had ever accumulated. Their task is to detect research which seems to have the greatest possibility of making it all the way through in being a new medicine and thereafter in supporting it to occur.

The team headed by Dr Richard Butt has explained that the drive behind their meetings are that they tend to live in an age of rapidly mounting biomedical invention, an age where the development of new medicine needs to be at an all-time high though the number of new drugs that are developed seems to be largely static.

 Valley of Death


  The time between getting promising results in an academic lab, in drug discovery, and receiving real interest from an investor or pharmaceutical corporation seems to be known as the `Valley of Death’ and with a good reason. Discerning as well as developing likely new medicines needs not only money but also knowledge together with quick delivery of industrial-kind science.

Several of the drug patients tend to succumb along the way before it is known whether they have fulfilled an unmet remedial requirement. The tech transfer offices – TTOs of Cambridge, Imperial College and UCL, had joined forces with three global pharmaceutical corporations, AstraZeneca (AZ) GSK and Johnson & Johnson, in January 2016, to develop a £40m collaboration known as Apollo Therapeutics.

According to Butt, their focus was in streamlining the academia-to-industry pipeline by discovering the best translatable science funding it fast and running the right development programme in making it appealing to industry. Apollo in consequence, tends to focus in maximising the opportunity wherein a probable drug would be developed from emerging basic science on investment of a state-of-the-art drug discovery programme which pharma company would find it appealing to license.

  Apollo Approach – New & Revolutionary


  Dr Iain Thomas, head of Life Sciences of Cambridge Enterprise – Cambridge’s TTP has commented that the Apollo approach is completely new and revolutionary. One could say that Apollo is building reassurance and the hardest part of the job at Cambridge Enterprise is selling good technology to pharma.

It relates to the psychology of buying and people do not tend to purchase complicated stuff with plenty of risks without much scrutiny. Guarantee tends to come in from being engaged with an opportunity for a long time. Partnership and engagement seems to be at the heart of the Apollo model.

Initially, Butt’s team spoke to the academics and TTOs of the universities in recognizing thrilling predictions before taking some of the ideas to the wider team of investors, comprising of the three companies together with the TTOs. He commented that as scientists, they would always be happy in spending time engaging in discussion with any academic regarding their job. He added that as drug discoverers, they had been very particular on what to take forward. They have filtered aggressively to maximise the opportunity of success.

  Goal – Finding New Medicines for Patients


  Apollo and the academics would work together, once a project has been designated for investment, to develop the discovery to a phase which will be appealing to a company to license and then take it ahead. This labour could occur in the laboratory of academic or in one of the Pharma Corporation or in a contract company. Moreover it could also take place at the Milner Therapeutics Institute, research laboratories which would open on the Cambridge Biomedical Campus towards 2018 devoted to adopting close combined connections between academia and industry.

Dr Ian Tomlinson, Chair of Apollo had informed that the significant is bringing together the skill sets, philosophies together with expertise of those who discover with those who know what to do with that discovery and that they are all motivated by the goal of finding new medicines for patients.

 He further added that the conventional pipeline functions thus – an academic does some great science, takes it as far as they are capable to within the limits of the lab and thereafter if they need to take it further, it either forms a spin-out or licenses to pharma.

 This tends to have its place though it would take time and is expensive. If the team of Richard tends to bring the investment team with a good idea, Apollo could fund it and be working with the academic within a few weeks.

  Drug Improvement Programme


  Amidst the Butt and his three colleagues they have more than 60 years of experience in the pharma industry. He informed that they saw the boom of the late 80s/early 90s of drug approvals and then genomics, high-throughput screening together with a seeming wealth of targets led to the mind-set of `we can scale this success’ – if we run thrice more projects and be three times more successful.

The basic biology nearly ended to matter. Projects seem to run which should not have been and R&D costs mounted though the output of new drugs flat-lined or even dropped. His team has already recognized eight projects all over the three universities to receive Apollo subsidy.

The first to be supported originated from a 20-year search by Dr Ravi Mahadeva at Cambridge’s Department of Medicine to treat Alpha-1 trypsin deficiency – AATD, for a small molecule drug. AAT is said to be a protein which usually protects the lungs and in AATD, a single genetic mutation causes it to aggregate in the liver. The outcome affects the liver and lungs are disabling leading to serious problems.

Presently there is no effective long-term treatment for this ailment. Apollo funds, for professor Randall Johnson, has meant that his research in Cambridge’s Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience tends to have been constant effortlessly through a drug improvement programme without the need of stop-start of waiting for subsidy, licensing or creation of a spin-out.

Wednesday, 21 June 2017

Science without borders is needed to solve the mystery of Alzheimer’s disease

Alzheimer’s disease
Alzheimer’s Disease & Related Disorders

Unpublished research at Symposium developed to fast-track prevention, together with treatment as well as cure for the unbearable disease affecting 1 in 3 seniors has been shared by 16 of the top Alzheimer’s scientists of the world.

Dean of the Keck School of Medicine of USC, Rohit Varma had welcomed the elite group to the 4th annual Zilkha symposium on Alzheimer Disease & Related Disorders. Varma had stated that he is delighted to host this conference that tends to bring together the best and the brightest physician-scientists from across the globe for studying new, basic, translational as well as clinical efforts in the field of Alzheimer’s and related neurodegenerative disorders.

He expects that with their wisdom, insight together with hard work they would put an end to the menace of this disease. Rudolph Tanzi of Harvard University, David Holtzman – Washington University, John Trojanowski and Virginia Man-Yee Lee - University of Pennsylvania, Kaj Blennow – University of Gothenburg in Sweden, Roger Nitsche – University of Zurich, Christer Betsholtz – Uppsala Universitet in Sweden and Ronald Petersen – Mayo Clinic college of Medicine are said to be some of the researchers that have joined Keck School of Medicine scientists Berislav Zlokovic and Paul Aisen in presenting their new discoveries.

Symptoms – 15 Years After Sticky Amyloid Proteins – Dull the Brain

According to Aisen, director of the USC Alzheimer’s Therapeutic Research Institute that leads eight clinical trials on the disease, states that the symptoms of Alzheimer’s tends to appear around 15 years after sticky amyloid proteins seem to dull the brain.

Quoting data from the on-going Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative study, Aisen had informed that around 80% of the participants having amyloid deposits in their brain but no symptoms of Alzheimer’s have developed symptoms of the disease within the next nine years.

Relatively only about 20% of the people devoid of amyloid deposits had later on developed related symptoms. He further added that he was of the opinion that they needed to carry this study further till they would feel that almost everyone with elevated amyloid would progress to symptomatic AD.

 Moreover it seemed reasonable to anticipate that they tend to start the trashy of anti-amyloid, 15 years prior to the expected onset of symptoms, they would be capable of preventing the development of clinical Alzheimer’s disease. In order to the trace the development of the disease over a period of time, Aisen has been enrolling healthy individuals having no symptoms of Alzheimer’s in clinical studies.

Biomarkers in Blood

In comprehending the disease and its progress would assist in the development of a `liquid bipsy’ blood test which would bring about an insight to the doctors wherein individuals could be at high risk for Alzheimer’s. In future, once the doctors tend to identify that a patient has early build-up of amyloid, they will be capable of prescribing a drug that could destroy the same.

 Thereafter, individuals could take a drug like a BACE- inhibitor in order to prevent amyloid build-up according to Aisen. Aisen had also added that doctors will ultimately be in a position of identifying people likely to develop Alzheimer’s through biomarkers found in blood draws, which will simplify preventive treatment. Director of the Zilkha Neurogenetic Institute, Zlokovic had challenged the amyloid hypothesis of Aisen stating that amyloid is not ground zero for neurodegeneration.

Zlokovic had commented that he is a bit worried if they consider Alzheimer’s is exclusively amyloid-derived neurodegeneration. He would state that this is a very complex, multifactorial disease which is motivated by genetic, vascular and environmental factors that all can effect disease inception and progression. He further added that disease inception may or may not include amyloid at all.

Healthy Brain – Healthy Blood Vessels

He explained that according to latest studies, issues in brain circulation like subtle damage to the smallest brain vessels, capillaries, loss of cerebrovascular integrity as well as blood flow changes taking place early could be vital to disease progression and lead to amyloid and tau pathology.

Zlokovic has been performing pioneering research on how leaks in the vascular system of the brain, the blood-brain barrier, tend to cause a flow of issues, inclusive of amyloid build-up. Zlokovic had mentioned that health epidemic of the 21st century is age-linked small vessel disease of the brain. Small vessel disease is said to contribute to around 45% of all dementias all over the world including Alzheimer’s.

Zlokovic recently had installed as the Mary Hayley and Selim Zilkha Chair in Alzhemier’s Disease Research further commented that a healthy brain needs healthy blood vessels. The blood-brain barrier averts the entry into the brain of blood deprived toxic products, pathogens and cells. Over 70 USC researchers over a range of disciplines have been inspecting the health, societal as well as political effects and its implications of Alzheimer’s.

 Zlokovic had informed that they would be looking forward to hosting this symposium again the next year and that it is critical for top experts of Alzheimer’s to come together and share their unpublished discoveries, concept and state-of-the art approaches in order that scientific barriers are eliminated and all tend to work together in arresting and reversing this devastating disease.

Monday, 19 June 2017

Human Stem Cells Model the Kidney Filtration Barrier

Glomerular filtration chip devised by the human stem cells differentiation

Well, it is a relief for the ailing ones especially the kidney patients. The glomerular filtration is the new addition in terms of the kidney related diseases. The best part is that a new chip has been designed which consists of the glomerulus itself and it could bring a smile for the kidney affected persons. The therapeutic therapy has been given a new dimension post this chip manufacturing.

The kidney is one of the most important organ in our body. It is quite essential and performs a lot of functions for our body. The filtering of blood is the most important one and also helps in removing waste elements via urine. It retains the elements in the form of proteins in our body which is beneficial for the circulation of blood and proper metabolism of the body.

THE STRUCTURE

The main thing that helps in achieving all the above mentioned activities is none other than the glomerulus itself. There is a membrane which is thin and separates the matrix. It filters the material. The researches go on in every field. The medical field is no exception. We had recently some of the greatest discoveries in the medical arena. It has really got advanced and helped to cut down the mortality rate by a huge margin by inventing new drugs or machines.

This has been possible with the combination of science and technology which has revolutionised the world. The stem cells were under the microscope for a long time which can convert to podocytes. These can be really very helpful for the medical field. Well, the glomerular filtration was not successful when podocytes were taken into consideration in order to culture cells.

THE SOLUTION

Where there is a way, there is a will. Well, certainly there is and nothing is impossible in this digital world. The solution was figured out by the scientists and developers for the glomerular filtration. The new process is something different where the podocytes which are considered to be mature are formed by separating the stem cells of human which have been induced by pluripotent.

THE WORKING

And it works as a wonder as the success rate is close to 90 percent. Now these were embedded on a chip and a model of the glomerulus of the human as created. In this fashion, the filtration process reached a new height and all the proteins and toxic elements could be differentiated. This chip which has been developed by the researchers will play a promising role in the near future.

This will also play a key role for more research in terms of experiments and other tests. The aspect of biology will get broader and widened now a bit with the development of the glomerular filtration chip. Well, we need to have patience till the chip is finally rolled out for the treatment purposes. The differentiation is the key to develop such a chip which would save kidney patients in future.

Friday, 16 June 2017

New Transplant Technology Could Benefit Patients with Type 1 Diabetes


Technology being used to cure Type 1 Diabetes

Diabetes is being noticed as a very obvious disease in people across the globe. The disease is the store house of several other diseases, and it slowly degenerates your body. The immediate consequences of diabetes may not be severe, but it has gruesome long term measures and can make you subjected to further health issues. It includes lot of restrictions in terms of food habits.

A diabetic person needs to follow a strict diet, as that would only help him to survive this serious ailment. Several approaches are being developed to free the world from this malicious disease. Many medical developments are taking place in this regard.

Approximate 1.25 million residents of America suffer from type 1 diabetes, which is also denoted as juvenile diabetes. This is disease is known for the body’s inability to generate insulin. In order to bring type 1 diabetes under control; patients are advised to test the level of glucose in their body on a frequent basis, and sometimes they are even advised to inject themselves with insulin, so that a safe balance is maintained and the body remains less prone to diseases. But some patients are reported to suffer from life-threatening consequences because of diabetes that is symptoms of hypoglycemic disorders are found.

To avoid all the fatal consequences of this ailment Garcia and collaborators along with post doctorate researchers and most importantly Jessica Weaver, is out for their venture to locate a restricting measure of diabetes. They are up for an innovative measure that would include transplantation of cells.

They are intending to develop a new hydrogel substance made of polymer, which could be easily degradable. This would be used to deliver cells through injection into the human body and it would consist of a gel based protein identified as vascular endothelial growth factor, that would result in strengthening the blood vessels into the cells transplanted in the body.

Garcia, after the experiment reported that this transplanted cells would require a lot of oxygenation and the connection to the body’s circulatory system should be high so that it grabs the sense of the level of glucose in one’s body and transport the insulin accordingly.

She has also observed that other than transporting insulin it is also capable of forming new blood vessels to nourish the existing cells. In this way, the immune syndrome of one’s body that gets shattered due to diabetes; is restored back.

Though, this measure seems innovative, yet it is not that easy as it sounds. Doctors from several decades have been trying to transplant pancreatic islets into the human body, but about 60 percent of the islets die immediately after they are transplanted because they are separated from the supply of blood while transplanting and are killed by the body’s immune response because of suddenly and directly being injected into the blood stream and fortunately those that survive, die within few months. So, the process is risky and chances of success is very less, but certainly it builds the ground for more innovations in treating type 1 diabetes.