Friday, 23 March 2018

In the Battle against Cancer, Microbes Could Be the Answer

Cancer Cell

Latest Treatment for Cancer – Thomas Gajewski

Research on latest treatment for cancer was carried out by Thomas Gajewski in 2016 where he observed an unusual incident in his lab mice. Thomas Gajewski a professor of medicine as well as pathology of University of Chicago had received his mice from two diverse suppliers namely Jackson Laboratory – JAX and Taconic Biosciences – TAC.When the tumours had been implanted beneath the skin of the JAX mice, its immune system battled the cancer thoroughly while the TAC mice on the other hand portrayed a poor immune response.

Difference Comprehended/Clarified

Combing the two together in a cage for a few weeks, the difference seemed to eliminate. The mice belonging to the TAC group were capable of battling the cancer with the same force as the JAX group. The difference was comprehended and clarified by differences between the microbiomes of animals, teeming mass of bacteria together with the other microbes which seemed to reside in the gut of the living creatures. It was some element in the gut of the JAX mice when the two groups exchanged bacteria.

Gut-Body Network – Important Role

The close link of the gut microbiome with the immune system was prepared recently and Gajewski discovery portrayed a system of exploiting the link, in improving the flexibility of the body on manipulating the guts. This discovery drew the attention of the executive of Evelo, Simba Gill. Evelo is a biotech company which is located in Cambridge, Massachusetts. It had been established 3 years back to develop a suite of latest medicines based on the knowing that gut-body network plays an important role in biology and immunology. Around $100 million had been raised by the company wherein the investors comprised of Flagship Pioneering, Google Ventures and Mayo Clinic.

Patent – Cancer Treatment

The responsibility of Evelo goes much more than cancer. Presently the company is exploring treatments on several sclerosis, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease together with diabetes and much more. Evelo tends to begin this year with clinical trials on some of its medicines known as monoclonal microbials – `monoclonal’ since individual medicine binds each microbe strain. A patent had been issued recently on Gajewski’s work for cancer treatment. Gill had mentioned that `the core of what they had been doing had been in recognition that the gut is networked to the body and drives several of the central aspect of how we fight disease’. For several years, medical science had overlooked the trillions of microorganisms which tend to share our body and are hazardous invaders that need attention.

Monoclonal Microbials

We are aware of the role these microbes tend to play in various functions of the body right from digestion and immunity to health of the organ including things such as sleep, mood and stress. The gut is said to comprise of 99% of the microbial mass of the body signifying thousands of species. If Evelo could identify the single strains, the same could be utilised in developing a new class of medicine. Monoclonal microbials tends to function by taking over one of the routine immunological processes of the body. The purpose is to load a capsule with an individual strain, probably tens of billions of microorganisms. Thereafter the capsule is swallowed which makes it way to an area of the small intestine which is lined with gut-linked lymphoid tissue. Through the interface of the tissue, dendritic cell test the gut and prepares the lymphatic system to the variations.

Precise Immune Response

A precise immune response is highlighted, based on which microbe is identified. Gajewski’s team, in the case of cancer, noticed that when Bifidobacterium had been introduced to the digestive system of a mouse, it seemed to boost the capability of the immune system of the animal to battle the cancer cells. According to Gill plenty of work needs to be done. He commented that it was very difficult to locate the strains that have the required type of activity. While models had been encouraging, trials in humans should be carried out and it is in people that most of the promising new medicines seem to fail. Gill however is of the belief that if trials are accomplished, microbes could be connected against range of cancer inclusive of colon, lung, renal, melanoma, bladder, head and neck cancer.
Checkpoint Inhibitor
This could be either alone or in combination with the prevailing immunotherapies. When specific strains of Bifs in the lab had been linked with a kind of immunotherapy drug known as checkpoint inhibitor, the growth of the cancer in mice had been almost eliminated. Gill perceives an opening for effective early-stage treatment for this disease in the market. He stated that modern medicine is very limited focusing on the several conditions which are not treated till the last stage since the treatment could be expensive, have side effects or need professional administration. On the contrary, monoclonal microbials can be swallowed at home. He is of the belief that they could be utilised as a means of preventive which makes sure that the gut-body network remains in a healthy, homeostatic balance.

Friday, 2 March 2018

Virtual Reality Coronation Takes Dementia Patients Down Memory Lane

Virtual Reality

Virtual Reality Headset – The Wayback

With the entry of a virtual reality (VR) headset, a 93 year old Daphne Padfield, who is a dementia victim in an English care home, had provided a window back in 1953 when Britain had crowned its new queen. Recalling the event of the coronation, Padfield stated that those events do not take place too often and she was privileged to watch the same.

The VR film that she viewed was the work of a project known as The Wayback, which had been developed for the purpose of activating memories together with emotions in individuals suffering from dementia in order to assist them in reengaging them with their relatives and care takers.

The planned series of the first film portrayed filmmakers together with a 170-strong volunteer cast recreating a street party that had been organised to celebrate the coronation of Queen Elizabeth on June 2, 1953. Users had the opportunity of viewing the film on downloading a free app on their smartphone which could then be installed into an economical virtual reality - VR headset.

According to co-creator Andy Garnett who had lost a member of his family suffering from dementia, had stated that this invention was born out of frustration and he hoped that there could have been something at that point of time which could have assisted him together with his family through this complex time.

Interesting Technique

He further added that utilising VR seemed to be quite an interesting technique in creating a memory as well as trigger a bigger conversation. Victims tend to suffer from dementia when the brain is said to get damaged due to strokes or diseases like Alzheimer’s. They suffer from loss of memory together with issues with thinking, solving problems or language.

According to the Alzheimer’s Society, a charity aid, it is said that in Britain, more than 850,000 people tend to suffer from some type of dementia and that number is estimated to increase to one million towards 2025. The Wayback, at Langham Court Dementia Home in Surrey, has been introduced for the relatives as well as carers for use with some residents. Director at the home, Sarah Chapman, had informed Reuters that the film aroused detailed recollection for those who had viewed it and mentioned that it was just amazing to see them so happy.

Assisting – Dementia

One of the senior researchers at a British dementia charity had received the VR technology as a resource of assisting those suffering from dementia though cautioned that the technology needed to be utilised with utmost care. Dr Karen Harrison-Dening, head of research and publications at Dementia UK had informed Reuters through email that for instance some people suffering from dementia experience what is known as misperceptions.

This could lead to confusion on which images seems to be real or not and could prove to disturb the victim. Filmmakers have the intention of making their next work around the 1966 soccer World Cup victory celebrations of England with a hope of expanding the VRproject to the other countries also.

Monday, 5 February 2018

New Micro Drug Delivery System Reduces Side Effects, Costs

Drug Delivery

Pharmaceutical Drug Delivery System – Colon/Lung Diseases

An improved directed pharmaceutical drug delivery system for the treatment of patients suffering from colon and lung diseases, inclusive of lung cancer which is the leading cause of cancer death in Australia, is being developed by Professor Neil Foster from the WA School of Mines, Energy and Chemical Engineering.

Professor Neil Foster had spent 20 years researching, developing and commercialising innovative pharmaceutical drug delivery systems at Curtin as well as at his earlier role as a chemical engineering professor at The University of New South Wales – UNSW. He had initiated two companies while at UNSW, namely Eiffel Technologies, currently known as Telesso Technologies and Bio Particle Technologies, to commercialise his research.

Foster has been an internationally recognized expert in the arena of supercritical fluids and dense gas technology. Towards mid-1990s Foster together with his colleague, Dr Angela Dillow from the University of Minnesota had approached MIT Professor Robert Langer who was one of the leading biomedical engineers of the world in developing a chemical agent from the supercritical fluid carbon dioxide which could be a cleaning as well as a sterilising agent.

Thereafter the technology had been licenced to a specialist development company known as NovaSterilis which had further enhanced the technology for sterilising transplanted human tissue, sensitive medical devices together with the other biomedical materials. Till date, Foster together with Langer tends to continue working in partnership with him.

Atomised Rapid Injection for solvent Extraction

The concept known as ARISE – Atomised Rapid Injection for Solvent Extraction, a technology re-engineers active pharmaceutical ingredients into particles not bigger than a few micrometres which means that they can be easily absorbed in the bloodstream of the body than the conventional pharmaceutical drug.

The ARISE process is a bottom up concept to drug micronization wherein the organic solution comprising of dissolved pharmaceutical ingredients are transported as an individual bolus injection strengthened under pressure variance in a vessel of static dense or supercritical carbon dioxide to influence solute drying. The quick injection method tends to eliminate the conventional usage of low flow-rates together with capillary nozzles or micro-orifices in accomplishing solution atomization.

Foster together with his research team had tested the efficacy on medications of the delivery system inclusive of the insulin; fluorouracil which tends to treat cancer, tobramycin that treats bacterial infections and fosfomycin, an antibiotic. Foster had explained that one of the issues experienced by the pharmaceutical industry was the shortage of new drug coming through the pipeline. In addition to the cost involved together with the relatively short patent life, it had driven pharmaceutical companies down the path of developing new delivery system and repurposing existing drugs.

Exploits Properties of Supercritical Fluids

If the research was successful, patients suffering from colon and lung diseases like irritable bowel disease, colorectal cancer, tuberculosis, cystic fibrosis and lung cancer would benefit from being prescribed lower dosages which would decrease the burden of drug on their bodies, related side effects together with the cost of the treatment.

Moreover, it would also reduce the cost of developing as well as gain market approval for fresh prescription medicine, estimated to be at US$ 2.6 billion as per the 2014 study by US non-profit research group Tufts Centre for the Study of Drug Development. Foster had stated that the prevailing treatment regiments for these disease state tends to be inefficient, frequently complex as well as time consuming and are associated with significant adverse side effect which contributes to poor patient compliance.

ARISE tends to exploit the properties of supercritical fluids together with gas expansion liquid technology. A supercritical fluid related to a substance wherein its pressure as well as its temperature are said to be above critical value providing it with the properties of gas and liquid. The gas-like properties have the potential to penetrate in a product and the liquid-like properties tend to dissolve the material in it enabling easy extraction.

Spontaneous Crystallisation of Pharmaceutical

Foster has summarised that by utilising decaffeinated coffee for instance, the supercritical fluid has the tendency of penetrating in the bean due to its gas-like properties, while its liquid-like properties permit the supercritical fluid to dissolve the caffeine.

 Then once again the gas-like caffeine takes over leaving the coffee bean and taking the caffeine with it. Though most pharmaceuticals do not tend to dissolve in supercritical fluids like supercritical fluid carbon dioxide, there seems to be an additional step involved wherein the pharmaceuticals tends to dissolve in a solvent like ethanol before the supercritical fluid is added to the mix.

Foster has explained that as the carbon dioxide is added, the solution tends to expand physically and as the solution expands, the density and the dissolving powers is said to decrease. At a specific degree of expansion, the solution does not have adequate dissolving properties to hold onto the pharmaceutical. What is observed then is spontaneous crystallisation of the pharmaceutical from the expanded solution – a gas expanded solution.

The following contributions of Foster has been extensively recognized –

  •  He had been awarded a high-status Qian Ren – 1000 Talents, Professorship in 2010 by the People’s Republic of China that tends to encourage talented researchers from across the world in leading innovative research in China. He had been the only Australia-based, non-national Chinese scholar to be recognized at that point of time. 
  •  He had been elected a member of the European Academy of Science and Arts in 2014, an independent transnational network which resolves intricate issues and Foster had been the only person out of three Australians to be given admission
Right through the duration of his career, Foster had trained, supervised as well as mentored around 39 higher degree research students together with 24 postdoctoral researchers and his main belief was that the research need not be for the benefit of research but also for commercial purpose with the potential of generating results which would benefit mankind.

The pharmaceutical tends to have very small particle size which is typically five micrometres or even less reduced to 50 nanometres which could be good in increasing the solubility of the drug in the bloodstream of the body. Moreover, the distribution of the size of the particle tends to be quite narrow which could be better to predict the onset of the therapeutic effect.

Thursday, 1 February 2018

Research Reveals Importance of Whooping Cough, Flu Vaccines for Pregnant Women


Maternal Immunisation

Australia had faced the worst flu time of year on record in 2017 wherein infants, together with children and elderly had been most vulnerable to influenza virus. As per Dr Annette Regan, an award winning research tends to target maternal child health, its seriousness for pregnant women in getting the flu vaccine and pertussis – whooping cough, vaccine to safeguard themselves together with their unborn children from potentially fatal illnesses which is a practise called `maternal immunisation’.

The vaccine for flu and whooping cough are rendered free of cost for pregnant women. The health effect of influenza and whooping cough very often has been underestimated though both the viruses could be the cause of devastating complication or also death in the susceptible population. Providing vaccine to pregnant women against the viruses helps in protecting the mother as well as her unborn child.

Antibodies tend to develop in response to the vaccine which helps in protecting the mother from infection and who in turn will transfer these antibodies to her child through her placenta. This helps in protecting the enfant till the child is adequately old to be immunised. This defence has been defined as the `ultimate birthday gift’, from a mother to her child.

Risk of Serious Complication

Regan commented that when the immune system of pregnant women tends to get somewhat depressed, and if they get an infection it could be much more severe and there is every possibility of influencing the unborn child. He further added that pregnant women together with their infants tend to be a high risk of serious complications from respiratory infections such as influenza.

It is for this purpose, influenza and pertussis vaccines have been suggested presently at the time of pregnancy. Influenza vaccines could be administered at any stage during pregnancy and pertussis vaccine is given between 28 and 32 weeks of pregnancy. The vaccine tends to protect the mother against the infection as well as prevent serious infection to their infants during their initial first month of life.

Babies can be prevented from being fatally ill from maternal vaccination. Riley Hughes a Perth-born baby is considered to be one of the most prominent victims of whooping cough.

At three weeks of age, in 2015, Riley had suffered from what seemed to be a cold though was suffering from whooping cough. He had been instantly hospitalised at Princess Margaret Hospital though had developed pneumonia and inspite of being treated, had a tragic death at four weeks of age.

Immunisation Foundation of Australia

The Western Australian State Government had launched a program for pregnant women, two days later after his death, to access free pertussis booster shots in their third trimester of pregnancy. Catherine and Greg Hughes, the parents of Riley, had established the Immunisation Foundation of Australia and campaign and advocate for the importance of vaccinefor pregnant women as well as the National Immunisation Program Schedule for children and infants.

In spite of the availability of free flu as well as whooping cough vaccine for pregnant women and the documented safety of this vaccine, the main hurdle to maternal vaccination was lack of guidance from treating healthcare professionals. Regan stated that `by far the biggest factor influencing whether women will get vaccinated during pregnancy or not, is whether her healthcare provider recommends it to her.

Almost 80 percent state that they would be vaccinated if their provider had suggested it to them. Moreover there is a perception that vaccination does not seem essential since women are not usually aware of the austerity of these diseases. Women also mentioned concern with regards to safety of the vaccine to their baby and probable side effects, as a reason why they opted not to be vaccinated.
Study – National Attention
Vaccines can be an apprehensive topic among members of the community who are of the belief that vaccinations could cause health issues or developmental differences, like Autism Spectrum Disorder in infants or children. No reliable studies are available to support that vaccinations could cause health issues or developmental differences in infants and young children. The vaccine is considered to be protective both to the mother and the health of the baby according to Regan’s research validates. Regan had also stated that there are some anti-vaccine groups who are of the belief that vaccination at the time of pregnancy is not safe and could be linked with birth defects such as microcephaly which is not true. There have been several studies indicating that influenza and pertussis vaccines are safe to mothers as well as their infants. PhD study of Regan – Seasonal Trivalent Influenza Vaccination During Pregnancy and the Incidence of Stillbirth: Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Study that linked data sources from 60,000 births in Western Australia between 2012 and 2013 portrayed pregnant women having flu vaccine faced half the risk of stillbirth in comparison to unvaccinated women. The study brought about a national attention resulting in an increase in maternal immunisation.
Regan – Aileen Plant Memorial Prize
She further stated that the results received plenty of media attention and had been publicized via social media. Most of the women in parenting blogs such as Mama Mia and on the Light for Riley page had commented saying that they had booked their influenza vaccine since they had heard of the study. Considering that less than two-thirds of women receive an influenza vaccine every year, encouraging more women to get vaccinated seems to be fantastic result. Regan had been awarded the esteemed Aileen Plant Memorial Prize in Infectious DiseaseEpidemiology in 2017 for her PhD research. Till 2015 when the death of Riley Hughes had shown a substance for maternal vaccinations, pregnant women had not received flu or whooping cough vaccine. There was restricted data on how these vaccinations influenced the health of the children in the long term. Regan is presently researching in this area in partnership with a Canadian colleague, Associate Professor Deshayne Fell, University of Ottawa. She has commented that though maternal vaccination is not a new concept by any means, till 2015 few pregnant women had received these vaccines. As a consequence, little is known regarding the long-term health effects on children.

Friday, 26 January 2018

Wellness For Beginners: Health Strategies That Promote Success

If you've recently realized that your thought processes and behavioral proclivities are not conducive to mental and physical health, you may be ready to make the changes necessary to facilitate wellness. If so, this is the quick reference guide for you. Read on to learn about several wellness strategies you can utilize to get on track to amazing health:

1. Focus On Your Food. 

If you want wellness to be your primary focus for the new year, be sure to place primacy on optimizing your eating habits. By focusing on your food, you'll be able to avoid big mistakes that detract from your level of vitality and physical appearance. Note that the majority of Americans currently consume a substandard diet that is commonly referred to as the Standard American Diet (SAD). This diet contains a wide range of chemical-laden processed foods while failing to provide people with adequate amounts of key vitamins, minerals, and nutrients. With these realities in mind, make sure that you are not eating in a conventional manner. Instead, make a point to pile your plate high with fresh fruits and vegetables every chance you get.

If you find it difficult or awkward to eat in a healthy manner when you are in social settings, note that you have several options that will help you facilitate permanent, positive change. One is changing your social network so you're consistently dining with individuals who love healthy eating. Note that you can use a digital resource such as Meetupdotcom to find healthy Meetup groups in your local area. Also note that the process of learning how to love eating healthy food can transpire in relative isolation. If you don't feel comfortable discussing your poor eating habits with others or connecting with people in contexts that are food-centered, you can begin to change your food behaviors from the privacy of your apartment or home. There are now millions and millions of delicious, nutritious recipes that you can access via internet for the purpose of consistently consuming the types of foods that will help you look and feel your best.

Note that while strategies such as enhancing your fruit and vegetable intake will help you attain more nutrients, even healthy eaters find that there are periodically nutritional holes in their diets. As such, you may want to consider the value of purchasing multivitamins. This way, you won't have to worry about coming up short in terms of things like folate, iron, calcium, manganese, etc. Note that you can get your vitamins from Visit the website now to learn more about the company and all of the vitamins they have to offer.

2. Start Meditating. 

In addition to optimizing your eating habits, make sure that you start meditating regularly. This technique will help you gain conscious awareness of and control over your thought processes. Note that many people are in the habit of consistently allowing negative, self-defeating thoughts to flow through their brains throughout the day. Also note that mass media consistently produces television ads, films, and music which contain ideas, images, and ideological perspectives that may not parallel your personal value system. If you are intentionally or unintentionally exposing yourself to these mediums, you may find that your thought life is not conducive to mental health and general well-being. Yet by developing a strong, regular meditation practice, you can begin to consciously, continually structure and redirect your thoughts so that your cognitive processes leads to positive thinking and productive living.

3. Exercise Consistently. 

One final strategy individuals can implement to make wellness their reality is consistent exercise. While many people know that exercise plays a key role in facilitating holistic health, factors such as habituation, fear, and external environment preclude them from making physical activity a central component of their lifestyle. Don't let this happen to you. Instead, start exercising consistently so you can attain great wellness benefits such as clearer thinking, a slimmer physique, more energy, and amazing skin. Yoga, pilates, step aerobics, and cycling are just four of numerous exercises you could engage in to take your level of health to an all-time high.


If you're excited about the idea of optimizing your mental and physical well-being yet don't know how to make it happen, don't worry. Instead, use the information found in this quick reference guide to get and remain on the highway to health!

Monday, 8 January 2018

Mini Liver Tumours Created in a Dish for the First Time

Organoids – Developed by Scientists for the 1st Time 

Mini biological models of human primary liver cancers, known as organoids, have been created by scientists in the lab for the first time. Published in the paper `Nature Medicine’, the miniature laboratory models of tumours have been utilised in identifying a new drug which could probably treat certain kind of liver cancer.

The second most dangerous cancer which is known all over the world is the primary liver cancer and in order to comprehend better the biology of the disease and develop potential treatments, the researchers had the necessity of models which could develop in the lab and precisely reflect on how the tumours tend to behave in patients. Earlier, cultures of cells were utilised though these tend to be difficult to maintain and have failed in recreating the 3D structure as well as tissue architecture of human tumours.

The mini tumours had been created up to 0.5mm by the researchers which had been named as `tumouroids’ – mimic the three most common forms of primary liver cancer. The cell of the tumours had been surgically detached from 8 patients and the same were grown in a solution comprising of precise nutrients together with substance that had prevented healthy cells opposing the tumours cell.

Tumouroids Utilised to Test Efficacy of Drugs 

The tumouroids were utilised to test the efficacy of 29 various drugs comprising of those present used in the treatment and drugs in growth, by the group from the Wellcome/Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute in Cambridge.

A compound in the form of protein inhibitor had been located to hinder the activation of a protein known as ERK in two of the three kinds of tumouroids, which is a vital step in the growth of liver cancer. Thereafter the researchers had tested the compound in vivo, transplanting two kinds of tumouroids in mice, treating them with the drug. There was a noticeable reduction in the growth of the tumours in mice that had been treated with the drug, ascertaining a probable novel treatment for some kind of primary liver cancer.

The tumouroids had been capable of preserving tissue structure together with the gene expression patters of the original human tumours from where they had been derived. Single subtypes of three various kinds of liver cancer together with the various tumour tissues which came seemed to be different even when they had been developed in a dish for a long time.

Organoids From healthy Liver Tissue

As the tumouroids seems to maintain the biological features of their parent tumour, they could play an important role in developing personalised medicine for patients. The construction of biologically perfect models of tumours could reduce the number of animals required for certain experiments.

The study of animals would be essential in validating discoveries though the tumouroids would enable scientists in exploring main issues regarding the biology of liver cancer in cultures instead of mice. Dr. Meritxell Huch, lead researcher, a Wellcome Sir Henry Dale Colleague from the Gurdon Institute commented that they had earlier created organoids from healthy liver tissue though the creation of liver tumouroids seemed to be a big leap forward for cancer research.

They will enable them to understand much better the biology of liver cancer and with progressed work would be capable of testing drugs for each patient to produce personalised treatment plans. Head of Cellular and Developmental Sciences at Wellcome, Dr Andrew Chisholm stated that this work portrays the power of organoid cultures to model human cancers.

 It is impressive to view just how well the organoids tend to be capable of mimicking the biology of various liver tumour categories. This has provided the researcher with a better way of investigating this disease.

Funded by NC3RS /Wellcome & Cancer Research UK Cambridge Centre 

Dr Laura Broutier, one of the researchers had explained that they collect a section of a tumour from a patient and thereafter divide this section into four portions in the lab. One part is utilised to do organoid culture and the other parts are utilised in assessing the genetics of the original tumour.

 These organoids are shown mimicking the original tumours. Cells in 2D cultures acquire new mutations which are not in the patient towards the beginning while these 3D cultures tend to keep the original mutations and do not need new mutations. These models have a tendency to to be vital for the next generation of cancer research and need to permit scientists to minimise the numbers of animals utilised for the purpose of research.

Chief Executive of the NC3Rs Dr Vicky Robinson that had somewhat financed the work stated that they were pleased to see that the funds from their annual 3Rs prize sponsored by GlaxoSmithKline, had promoted Dr Huch’s research. Every year the prize gained recognition for exceptional science which furthered the 3Rs. The work is being conducted by Meri and her team and tends to make progress in this area.

This innovation involving liver cancer organoids is said to have the capability of reducing the number of animals needed in the initial stages of liver cancer research and provide more biologically accurate models of human tumours. This work had been funded by a National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement as well as Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs) research prize, together with Wellcome and Cancer Research UK Cambridge Centre.

Sunday, 7 January 2018

'Y’ a Protein Unicorn Might Matter in Glaucoma

'Y’ a Protein Unicorn

First Discovery – Encoded By Gene – Protein Linked with Glaucoma

Recent discovery has been done on Y-shape towards the base of myoclin linking together four popular proteins forms known as olfactomedins or propellers in segments of four. To get some insight on myocilin is essential in definite types of hereditary glaucoma.

Raquel Lieberman, the artist behind this interpretation is said to be the main investigator of the group which has set a Y-shaped structure, considered to be the first ever discovery which had been encoded by a gene and not built from protein component parts. This amazing discovery had been done by researcher regarding protein linked with glaucoma which for more than two years had gone through a tough lab test.

A new research paper had been published regarding the same and what was observed had been certified. It was a Y-shape which had made it peculiarly significant to science and probably to medicine, especially in the treatment of certain kind of blindness.

Raquel Lieberman leading the study had commented that a protein of this kind had not been reported earlier and there seems to be very few Y-shapes in protein at all. Lieberman is a structural biologist at the Georgia Institute of Technology and expert on myocilin that is a protein which at times is associated in a form of hereditary glaucoma.

Common Cause of Blindness Glaucoma 

Universally the second most common cause of blindness is glaucoma and hereditary glaucoma is said to be one type of the ailment. Major cause of hereditary glaucoma is genetic mutation in myocilin that tends to strike especially at a tender age particularly in childhood. It is said that there are other forms in protein that tend to look same to the Y, although with significant variances.

Lieberman had commented that the antibodies appear somewhat like this though in antibodies, separate proteins, which are the various genes of the product that fit together making it a type of Y-shape. This Y is encoded by an individual gene sequence which makes it completely exclusive. Besides being apparent unicorn of protein structure, it seems to be the essential binding component of myocilin.

The Y ties along with major components in nailing down the overall form of myocilin over turning the earlier conception regarding the appearance of protein. However the Y has not been associated in particular in glaucoma, its presence could change the way the researchers would comprehend myocilin and how it tends to function in the eye. It make fibrils when mycolin inclines to go wrong or misfolds, damaging tissue known as trabecular meshwork which have a tendency to generally permit the fluid in the eye to drain and relieve the pressure within.


Myocilin Common in Body

Lieberman, an associate professor in Georgia Tech’s School of chemistry and Biochemistry, had commented that if one destroys the cells responsible for draining the fluid, it would clog and the pressure within the eye would increase.

Moreover that pressure could destroy areas of the retina or optic nerve which would cause irreversible partial or complete blindness. In spite of the fact that myocilin tends to be common in several areas of our body, its usual healthy function in the eye and what functions the protein tends to have in the body seems to be yet a mystery.

Lieberman had further commented that he thinks that if they were aware of what this protein could be doing in the trabecular meshwork then they would comprehend more regarding glaucoma in general. This study has enabled them to get more insight with regards to myocilin. The results had been published by Lieberman on October 19, 2017, in the journal Structure.

The research had been financed by the National Eye Institute together with the National Institute of General Medical Science, both at the National Institutes of Health by the National Science Foundation as well as by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science.

Stingy Abnormal Proteins 

The purpose of the study so far had been on area of myocilin which tends to be the main issue by way of hereditary glaucoma, which is considered to be protein structure known as the olfactomedin domain. This had been extensively researched by Lieberman. It appeared like a protein propeller having five blades surrounding a hole towards its centre.

Lieberman had also stated that when a myocilin propeller tends to misfolds, it unravels forming amyloid fibrils – stingy abnormal proteins. This damaged the cells which maintain the trabecular network. Till then their work had led them to assume that the propellers floated around exclusively as liberated units and not bound together in groups.

 He further added that they were aware that in solutions, those olfactomedins had been just monomers. They did not make much of a higher order with the exception that when they had untied into amyloid fibres, they stuck together and blocked the flow of fluid.

 The Y tends to change the image and anchors the propellers in cluster of four. Two of the propellers – olfactomedin domains, each seem to be linked probably to the tip of the Y’s branches possibly by amino acid strings.

Super Sticky

The overall myocilin with the Y tends to appear like fur pinwheels on strings linked to a slingshot. Additional new discoveries – The Y tends to be sticky like glue and seems to be bothersome while handling in the lab. He informed that it was sticking to the plastic, to the glass as well as to the membrane, to beads and is super sticky. This could serve a biological function. The Y could perhaps fasten the propellers to surface though it is not known.

Lieberman is of the opinion that the main function would be to pair and separate out these olfactomedin domains. Mutations in the Y are not knowingly linked with glaucoma. Lieberman has stated that when it mutates, it tends to misfold though not in a manner which would cause cell death.

However in usual role the Y could promote the speed of misfolding of the propeller protein which is associated with hereditary glaucoma. When the misfolded proteins tends to come in contact with good proteins it is said that the misfolded one make the ones which are good to misfold also.