Wednesday, 21 June 2017

Science without borders is needed to solve the mystery of Alzheimer’s disease

Alzheimer’s disease
Alzheimer’s Disease & Related Disorders

Unpublished research at Symposium developed to fast-track prevention, together with treatment as well as cure for the unbearable disease affecting 1 in 3 seniors has been shared by 16 of the top Alzheimer’s scientists of the world.

Dean of the Keck School of Medicine of USC, Rohit Varma had welcomed the elite group to the 4th annual Zilkha symposium on Alzheimer Disease & Related Disorders. Varma had stated that he is delighted to host this conference that tends to bring together the best and the brightest physician-scientists from across the globe for studying new, basic, translational as well as clinical efforts in the field of Alzheimer’s and related neurodegenerative disorders.

He expects that with their wisdom, insight together with hard work they would put an end to the menace of this disease. Rudolph Tanzi of Harvard University, David Holtzman – Washington University, John Trojanowski and Virginia Man-Yee Lee - University of Pennsylvania, Kaj Blennow – University of Gothenburg in Sweden, Roger Nitsche – University of Zurich, Christer Betsholtz – Uppsala Universitet in Sweden and Ronald Petersen – Mayo Clinic college of Medicine are said to be some of the researchers that have joined Keck School of Medicine scientists Berislav Zlokovic and Paul Aisen in presenting their new discoveries.

Symptoms – 15 Years After Sticky Amyloid Proteins – Dull the Brain

According to Aisen, director of the USC Alzheimer’s Therapeutic Research Institute that leads eight clinical trials on the disease, states that the symptoms of Alzheimer’s tends to appear around 15 years after sticky amyloid proteins seem to dull the brain.

Quoting data from the on-going Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative study, Aisen had informed that around 80% of the participants having amyloid deposits in their brain but no symptoms of Alzheimer’s have developed symptoms of the disease within the next nine years.

Relatively only about 20% of the people devoid of amyloid deposits had later on developed related symptoms. He further added that he was of the opinion that they needed to carry this study further till they would feel that almost everyone with elevated amyloid would progress to symptomatic AD.

 Moreover it seemed reasonable to anticipate that they tend to start the trashy of anti-amyloid, 15 years prior to the expected onset of symptoms, they would be capable of preventing the development of clinical Alzheimer’s disease. In order to the trace the development of the disease over a period of time, Aisen has been enrolling healthy individuals having no symptoms of Alzheimer’s in clinical studies.

Biomarkers in Blood

In comprehending the disease and its progress would assist in the development of a `liquid bipsy’ blood test which would bring about an insight to the doctors wherein individuals could be at high risk for Alzheimer’s. In future, once the doctors tend to identify that a patient has early build-up of amyloid, they will be capable of prescribing a drug that could destroy the same.

 Thereafter, individuals could take a drug like a BACE- inhibitor in order to prevent amyloid build-up according to Aisen. Aisen had also added that doctors will ultimately be in a position of identifying people likely to develop Alzheimer’s through biomarkers found in blood draws, which will simplify preventive treatment. Director of the Zilkha Neurogenetic Institute, Zlokovic had challenged the amyloid hypothesis of Aisen stating that amyloid is not ground zero for neurodegeneration.

Zlokovic had commented that he is a bit worried if they consider Alzheimer’s is exclusively amyloid-derived neurodegeneration. He would state that this is a very complex, multifactorial disease which is motivated by genetic, vascular and environmental factors that all can effect disease inception and progression. He further added that disease inception may or may not include amyloid at all.

Healthy Brain – Healthy Blood Vessels

He explained that according to latest studies, issues in brain circulation like subtle damage to the smallest brain vessels, capillaries, loss of cerebrovascular integrity as well as blood flow changes taking place early could be vital to disease progression and lead to amyloid and tau pathology.

Zlokovic has been performing pioneering research on how leaks in the vascular system of the brain, the blood-brain barrier, tend to cause a flow of issues, inclusive of amyloid build-up. Zlokovic had mentioned that health epidemic of the 21st century is age-linked small vessel disease of the brain. Small vessel disease is said to contribute to around 45% of all dementias all over the world including Alzheimer’s.

Zlokovic recently had installed as the Mary Hayley and Selim Zilkha Chair in Alzhemier’s Disease Research further commented that a healthy brain needs healthy blood vessels. The blood-brain barrier averts the entry into the brain of blood deprived toxic products, pathogens and cells. Over 70 USC researchers over a range of disciplines have been inspecting the health, societal as well as political effects and its implications of Alzheimer’s.

 Zlokovic had informed that they would be looking forward to hosting this symposium again the next year and that it is critical for top experts of Alzheimer’s to come together and share their unpublished discoveries, concept and state-of-the art approaches in order that scientific barriers are eliminated and all tend to work together in arresting and reversing this devastating disease.

Monday, 19 June 2017

Human Stem Cells Model the Kidney Filtration Barrier

Glomerular filtration chip devised by the human stem cells differentiation

Well, it is a relief for the ailing ones especially the kidney patients. The glomerular filtration is the new addition in terms of the kidney related diseases. The best part is that a new chip has been designed which consists of the glomerulus itself and it could bring a smile for the kidney affected persons. The therapeutic therapy has been given a new dimension post this chip manufacturing.

The kidney is one of the most important organ in our body. It is quite essential and performs a lot of functions for our body. The filtering of blood is the most important one and also helps in removing waste elements via urine. It retains the elements in the form of proteins in our body which is beneficial for the circulation of blood and proper metabolism of the body.

THE STRUCTURE

The main thing that helps in achieving all the above mentioned activities is none other than the glomerulus itself. There is a membrane which is thin and separates the matrix. It filters the material. The researches go on in every field. The medical field is no exception. We had recently some of the greatest discoveries in the medical arena. It has really got advanced and helped to cut down the mortality rate by a huge margin by inventing new drugs or machines.

This has been possible with the combination of science and technology which has revolutionised the world. The stem cells were under the microscope for a long time which can convert to podocytes. These can be really very helpful for the medical field. Well, the glomerular filtration was not successful when podocytes were taken into consideration in order to culture cells.

THE SOLUTION

Where there is a way, there is a will. Well, certainly there is and nothing is impossible in this digital world. The solution was figured out by the scientists and developers for the glomerular filtration. The new process is something different where the podocytes which are considered to be mature are formed by separating the stem cells of human which have been induced by pluripotent.

THE WORKING

And it works as a wonder as the success rate is close to 90 percent. Now these were embedded on a chip and a model of the glomerulus of the human as created. In this fashion, the filtration process reached a new height and all the proteins and toxic elements could be differentiated. This chip which has been developed by the researchers will play a promising role in the near future.

This will also play a key role for more research in terms of experiments and other tests. The aspect of biology will get broader and widened now a bit with the development of the glomerular filtration chip. Well, we need to have patience till the chip is finally rolled out for the treatment purposes. The differentiation is the key to develop such a chip which would save kidney patients in future.

Friday, 16 June 2017

New Transplant Technology Could Benefit Patients with Type 1 Diabetes


Technology being used to cure Type 1 Diabetes

Diabetes is being noticed as a very obvious disease in people across the globe. The disease is the store house of several other diseases, and it slowly degenerates your body. The immediate consequences of diabetes may not be severe, but it has gruesome long term measures and can make you subjected to further health issues. It includes lot of restrictions in terms of food habits.

A diabetic person needs to follow a strict diet, as that would only help him to survive this serious ailment. Several approaches are being developed to free the world from this malicious disease. Many medical developments are taking place in this regard.

Approximate 1.25 million residents of America suffer from type 1 diabetes, which is also denoted as juvenile diabetes. This is disease is known for the body’s inability to generate insulin. In order to bring type 1 diabetes under control; patients are advised to test the level of glucose in their body on a frequent basis, and sometimes they are even advised to inject themselves with insulin, so that a safe balance is maintained and the body remains less prone to diseases. But some patients are reported to suffer from life-threatening consequences because of diabetes that is symptoms of hypoglycemic disorders are found.

To avoid all the fatal consequences of this ailment Garcia and collaborators along with post doctorate researchers and most importantly Jessica Weaver, is out for their venture to locate a restricting measure of diabetes. They are up for an innovative measure that would include transplantation of cells.

They are intending to develop a new hydrogel substance made of polymer, which could be easily degradable. This would be used to deliver cells through injection into the human body and it would consist of a gel based protein identified as vascular endothelial growth factor, that would result in strengthening the blood vessels into the cells transplanted in the body.

Garcia, after the experiment reported that this transplanted cells would require a lot of oxygenation and the connection to the body’s circulatory system should be high so that it grabs the sense of the level of glucose in one’s body and transport the insulin accordingly.

She has also observed that other than transporting insulin it is also capable of forming new blood vessels to nourish the existing cells. In this way, the immune syndrome of one’s body that gets shattered due to diabetes; is restored back.

Though, this measure seems innovative, yet it is not that easy as it sounds. Doctors from several decades have been trying to transplant pancreatic islets into the human body, but about 60 percent of the islets die immediately after they are transplanted because they are separated from the supply of blood while transplanting and are killed by the body’s immune response because of suddenly and directly being injected into the blood stream and fortunately those that survive, die within few months. So, the process is risky and chances of success is very less, but certainly it builds the ground for more innovations in treating type 1 diabetes.

Wednesday, 14 June 2017

Two Part System Turns Stem Cells into Whatever You Want

Well, the science and technology has taken the world to a different level. Each day we are embraced with a new kind of discovery and invention. This has made our lives more safe and comfortable. We are now living our dreams and a much better life with reduced tensions. Recently, by using the embryonic or stem cells which are adult were used to change the target cell for reproduction. However, it is now as easy as the process is thought to be. To make things easy, a team comprised of international scientist have indulged themselves in this development. They have developed a two-part system which is able to covert the stem cells to the targets and then have the remnants removed. So only the required DNA is left behind in order to replicate.

THE PROCESS OF TWO PART SYSTEM STEM CELLS

There are few complexities with the process as it involves a bit of hard work and perfection. The human pluripotent stem cells can’t be used directly so this is a great disadvantage. This type of cells can mutate to any kind of cells within the human body. But this series of change is a bit complex which the DNA controls, once it gets triggered. In the past, many processes were followed but there were remains of the DNA as usual. So the process is bit complicated and it takes a good amount of time for the scientists.

Due to patience of the scientists, we are able to witness all these wonderful discoveries and inventions which have shaped our life in a great deal. The current method has a change as the DNA in this method is used to turn the colour of the cell green with the usage of blue light. This makes the conclusion that the plasmid of the DNA is placed in the body of the cell and it gets removed completely.

THE INITIATIVE

Well, there are many fields to explore in this world and hence the scientists are doing the same. They are trying their best to go beyond the limits and the effect of conversions after the DNA is removed. The earlier methods took into consideration the DNA to switch the conversions but it was not successful in removing the DNA completely that was placed inside. The new method is somewhat a bit different and it helps in removing the DNA completely. This makes the work or the process function completely and successfully.

THE MATERIALS

The researchers have devoted a lot of time for this and they are currently completing the process with the help of a system known as Tet-On 3G inducible PiggyBac which is basically a plasmid that has been named XLone in order to get the objectives done.

The basic objectives are inserting, activating and removing of the DNA. The system Tet-On 3G inducible PiggyBac takes into consideration to insert the DNA into the DNA of the Cell. With information containing the correct signalling, the Tet-On 3G inducible PiggyBac system allows the stem cells to become sensitive when doxycycline is used to activate the process.

Monday, 12 June 2017

Zika Transmitting Mosquitoes have Resistance to Commonly Used Insecticides

Mosquitoes
The world has witnessed some of the greatest virus that has taken a huge number of lives. The countries of Africa are the worst affected. To help them, the WHO has come forward but when it comes for a new type for virus like the ZIKA or the DENGUE, the WHO has also failed. We were only allowed to stay in dark. But recently a renowned professor from The Institute of Environmental and Human Health (TIEHH) at Texas Tech University has stated that there is high possibility that the world would be shaken by the outbreak of ZIKA virus. The person himself is not sure where the breakout may be. He believes it can be in States or it can be in any isolated place. But whatever may be in the future, he is ready to fight with all resources.

THE RESOURCES

He has decided to start the most important research and for this he is getting funded by whooping amount of $2000000 from the Texas Department of State Health Services. The main objective is to get the knowledge of the mosquito insecticides and its effectiveness for which it has been used against the ZIKA virus and other dangerous diseases. The primary objective is to eliminate the virus as it has already taken a huge number of lives. So, it has to be stopped before another outbreak creates a chaos in the world. If not eliminate them, the virus has to be controlled in the most efficient manner. This would help in preventing the spreading of the virus. For the researchers, the baffling question is whether the virus is resistant to mosquito insecticides. If they are resistant to mosquito insecticides, then it is a great matter of concern.

THE TESTS

Presley, who has already tested the ZIKA outbreak much before the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Science, Space and Technology in May 2016, has been a part of the committee who has been working for bringing mosquito diseases under control and the transmission of disease. They have been working very hard in order to restore the momentum but it has only got worse.

EXPECTATIONS

However, the time will decide whether the virus have become resistant to the mosquito insecticides. They have been used in the state of Texas and the reports would reveal everything. So, we need to keep our patience as this is a major concern in terms of health and immunity all over the world. If the reports are positive, then it would be very helpful to combat the dangerous effect and threat of the ZIKA virus.

PREVENTION

Brazil was literally taken down by the ZIKA virus last year. The most important and basic thing is that we need to keep the mosquitoes out from the house by taking various methods. It is better to keep windows closed after evening and have the room air-conditioned. The virus keeps on mutating and gets adapted to the changes and this makes the condition even worse.

Wednesday, 24 May 2017

Scientists Develop Synthetic Cell

Synthetic cells - Towards the giant leap from molecules to life

The cell is one of the most unique creation where on one hand it can be seen as just a group of molecules in a membrane while on the other it is a collection of macro-molecular machine which produces and helps molecules grow, multiply and transfer information. These molecules along with chemical reactions help create life. The mechanism behind this is being studied by Professor Marileen Dogterom of the Bio-nanoscience field, to eventually form synthetic cells by re-creation of cellular machineries. According to her theory, these synthetic cells could provide the insight required to modify and restore human cells which could be used in treatment of cure of diseases easily.

Synthetic cells Extremely Active and Vibrant

Drug research helps in finding out which aspect in the cell is to be treated or worked upon to restore it back to the original version of it that was harmed by the disease. Professor Dogterom says that there will be a lot of trials and errors in drug research as long as the mechanisms in the cell are not fully understood. Once the necessary mechanisms are recreated, there will be a better understanding to how and where diseases originate from. At the same time, this will help reveal how exactly do medications work and how cell mechanisms are repaired. It would, in all probability, lead to more focused drug researches and give an in-depth understanding to disease processes with less detrimental side effects.

The number and intricacy of cell mechanisms that can be reconstructed outside cells has increased vastly in recent years. Dogterom thus is optimistic about the future saying that this will help put together something that has the basic abilities as life within the next two decades. The basic competences of life are the ability to create and use molecules, also known as metabolism, tranfering of cellular information to progeny via DNA and cell evolution and multiplication. Currently the researches are focused on mainly these three competences separately.

How Does Synthetic cells Give Inspiration to Researches?

The combination of these three separate mechanisms might be accessible once they are mastered. Once this combination is achieved there will be a tremendous breakthrough in synthetic cells research, says Dogterom. The research on synthetic cells is very vital and is still a small step in arena of vast possibilities. Dogterom concludes that it is helpful to know what information from the research is relevant to clinicians along with letting the research community know about her works so that both can work hand in hand in the field of researching on synthetic cells. It is inspiring as with their feedback, more progress can be made in this area within a reasonable amount of time.

Synthetic Cells for Building Synthetic Bone Implant

This same research has been applied by scientists to develop synthetic bone tissue that could change the face of bone marrow transplants, which usually produces a lot of undesirable side effects, according to a Medical Xpress report. Patients who require a bone marrow transplant are stereotypically required to undergo radiation treatment. The radiation kills the stem cells in the marrow that would conflict with the donor cells and makes space.

Among the many side effects, patients suffer from nausea, tiredness and infertility resulting from this treatment. As a solution to these problems, a bone-like implant was created using synthetic cells by bio-engineers from the University of California San Diego. This implant allows the donor cells their own space where they can live and grow without any interference from the existing stem cells in the marrow. As a result, the existing stem cells are not required to be killed, thus preventing the use of radiation on patients.

Experiments and researches were conducted on mice, where it was discovered that the implanted bone marrow was fully functional and it allowed the donor cells to grow and live for a long period of time even in the company of host cells. Both the host and the donor cells could travel between the blood circulating through the network of blood vessels formed in the implant tissue and the implant itself. However, there are certain restrictions to its implementation as the bone implants cannot be applied to patients with malignant bone marrow diseases with cancerous cells that have to be killed off.

Raised Stakes in the Quest to Harness Synthetic Life

Craig Venter, a Genomics entrepreneur, has formed synthetic cells that hold the tiniest genomes of any known, independent life form. This discovery is a landmark in his team’s research, spanning about 20 years of time, in making an in-depth study of life’s bare essentials and understanding the process of evolution of life from scratch. He is a co-founder of a company that researches in harnessing synthetic cells for use in the industrial field. His whole research is based on the idea that instead of making a brand new life form, we can build on what already exists and base the research on that.

The first synthetic cells were made in 2010 where an existing bacterial genome was copied and was transplanted into another cell. Unlike those, the minimal cells’ genome is like nothing ever seen in nature and is made up of a whole new and artificial species. In order to test his ideologies, Venter and his team proceeded to build a minimal genome starting from basics by connecting together chemically synthesised DNA segments. With the help of new technologies, they put in efforts in making an exact copy of a genome.

After overcoming many setbacks and obstacles, Venter and his team had a breakthrough where they discovered a gene design which had all the essential genes required for cellular activities such as making proteins, duplicating DNA and constructing cellular membranes. However, their research still had many unsolved puzzles which they yet had to unlock.

This genome designing techniques are believed to be useful by researchers for applications such as editing a genome to include new amino acids. This will be the new favourable approach to conduct therapies. Venter acknowledged that he stumbled upon his find and that it was completely through trial and error instead of being based on a carefully studied approach on how to build an operative genome. However, he said he sees quick improvements in the future and the preferred approach for manipulating life would be the process of genome synthesis from scratch.

Monday, 22 May 2017

Birth Control Made Easier: Scientists Found Sperm’s Power Switch—And a Way to Turn It Off

vasagel
The ancient birth control techniques ranging from using linen to animal bladder sheaths have evolved with time and new age discoveries. The effective and safe contraception or fertility control methods were available from the twentieth century including condoms, IUDs, birth control pills, vasectomy and tubal ligation. Scientists knew very little about the process of fertilization on a molecular level. Discovery of the crucial mechanism of the reproduction can pave the way for new fertility treatments which will eventually improve the fertility rates. Alternatively, it can lead to the production of unisex contraceptive.


In simpler words, sperms need to be kept away from eggs. But putting up a barrier is not the only way. Sperm cells are good in both swimming and drilling. The most common birth control tool is the condom. Proper use of condom actually helps in targeting the swimming portion of the process of pregnancy thereby controlling the sperm cells. But recent discoveries have shown that scientists have been able to find a way to stop the sperm cells in the drilling task. The result would be an effective treatment that would work equally for both men and women.


The sperm cells travel at a high speed to the fallopian tube from the cervix through the uterus moving their tails side to side. It swims around 24000 times of their own length of their body to reach the egg. Now the egg is covered in a thirty-micron thick protective layer known as the zona pellucida which is impossible for the five micron long headed human sperm to penetrate.

The sperm cells then turn into a direction and corkscrewing their head forward pierces through the viscous outer layers of the egg. This process is termed as the " power kick" by the scientists which means a huge amount to calcium ions are dumped into the sperm's tail. A particular enzyme on the tails of these hyperactive sperms responds to progesterone, the female sex hormone, which helps in activation of the power kick which in turn boosts the swimming speed of the sperms. It is believed that progesterone affects the progression the sperms. Scientists in a recent development introduced small electrodes that were attached to the tails of the sperm cells to record their responses to various hormones.


The power kick banks upon the Catsper despite the presence of thousands of different kinds of ion channels. When the sperm gets close to the unfertilized egg the CatSper activates to let in the calcium and encounters the progesterone. Few chemical compounds bind with the CatSper and helps in prevention of the calcium ions dump required for the power kick. There are two most promising compounds that come from plants consumed by the humans - lupeol found in the mangoes, grapes etc.


The previous male contraceptives have either failed or dropped due to its side effects. This new discovery would make a compelling pitch for drug makers. However, vasalgel is an exception here. It is a gel like barrier used to block sperms. It has passed the primate trials and has shown positive results.







Wednesday, 17 May 2017

Researchers Find New Source of Dangerous Electrical Instability in the Heart

Worldwide, at least 30 million people are living with slogans. In spite of improved treatment options, patients with pre-fibrillation still suffer from stroke, develop heart failure, and die prematurely. On the initiative of the Competence Network, and the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA), an international expert group has now developed a plan to improve the quality of the treatment of pre-slurries. The AFNET / EHRA consensus report is published today in the journal EP Europace.

 More than 70 experts from almost every continent participated in the conference and exchanged their experiences. "In view of the great diversity of health systems worldwide, the different countries can learn from each other and develop better models for the treatment of atrial fibrillation. We hope that this plan, which has been created by specialists from different parts of the world, will help to improve the treatment of squibs in Europe and the world, "said Prof. Gerhard Hindricks, President of EHRA.

Several million people in the world have unidentified and therefore untreated pre-fibrillation, combined with a high risk of stroke and death. The AFNET / EHRA Roadmap recommends the introduction of a large-scale pre-screening screening for over-65s and high-risk populations to enable early diagnosis and treatment of pre-fibrillation.

Anticoagulants (anticoagulant drugs for stroke prevention) can only be effective if taken regularly. Therefore, strategies must be defined to minimize disruption or discontinuation of anticoagulation therapy.

Enlightened patients

For a successful therapy of atrial fibrillation - the experts agree on this - all patients should be involved in the decisions about their treatment. The prerequisite for this is that the patients are well informed. In order to achieve this, the authors recommend to improve the availability of free information on pre-ventilations and associated complications and treatment options.

 Patient-friendly initiatives, such as the EHRA-developed patient website, available in five European languages, are considered to be very helpful to the inclusion of the Patients. In addition, "patient reported outcomes" should be used to capture symptoms and consequences of pre-fibrillation from the patient's perspective.

Structured treatment

Adequate treatment of pre-fibrillated patients is complex. Prof. Andreas Gotte, member of the board, said: "Such a aid of pre-fibrillation should check that all patients are offered information based therapy." Therefore, the AFNET / EHRA Plan recommends a structured approach guided by interdisciplinary teams Of care plans for all vaccine patients. Improved therapy

Several million people in the world have unidentified and therefore untreated pre-fibrillation, combined with a high risk of stroke and death. The AFNET / EHRA Roadmap recommends the introduction of a large-scale pre-screening screening for over-65s and high-risk populations to enable early diagnosis and treatment of pre-fibrillation. Anticoagulants (anticoagulant drugs for stroke prevention) can only be effective if taken regularly. Therefore, strategies must be defined to minimize disruption or discontinuation of anticoagulation therapy.

The experts recommend the development of standards with which the quality and success of the pre-flax ablation can be measured uniformly. Frequently, the rhythm disturbance is not completely eliminated by an ablation. Further studies are needed to find the best treatment for patients with presumptive relapse after ablation.

Personalized treatment

Further research is needed to better understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the pre-fibrillation. The experts propose to evaluate genetic factors, specific biomarkers, and ECG parameters to identify different subtypes of atrial fibrillation in individual patients and to develop more targeted therapies.

For example, new biomarkers or ECG information could be used to better estimate the individual risk of anticoagulation in patients with a medium or low risk of stroke. At present, it is not yet known whether these patients benefit from anticoagulation therapy or not. Prof. A. John Camm, the future president of the EHRA and co-organizers of the Fifth AFNET / EHRA Conference, concludes: "We believe that the proposed research activities can aid to hone the treatment of atrial fibrillation and the treatment for many patients around the world to improve. There is an imperative need for long-term research funding to enable the implementation of sufficiently large studies

Monday, 15 May 2017

First Arrival Hypothesis in Darwin’s Finches Gets Some Caveats

The finch species of the Galapagos Islands became the crowning testimonies of Darwin theory.
Already more than 200 years ago, many scholars had noticed that the living creatures are using all imaginable survival recipes - today one would say to fill all the biological niches - and that the multitude of species could not have all been fit for Noah's Ark. There must have been a development of the species.

In addition, it was already known at the time that innumerable species, which could be reconstructed from fossils, had to have perished. It could not be that the species were created and then not changed. Since skeletons of living beings were found in the fossil-bearing layers, which had to be clearly related to species living today, the idea that there must be a development of the species was obvious. In the sequence of the geological layers, it was also clear (mostly) that the fossils embedded in it were all the more primitive the older the layers were.

Thus, mammals have only existed since the Cretaceous, fish appear later than molluscs, etc. One could even use the fossils to define a sequence of the geological ages; one could use the fossils of a stratum to roughly estimate their age. The idea that first came to the fore was that the life is derived from simple monks who have split up into many species.

Suddenly, nature invented a multicellular organism, probably from a colony-forming single cell, and began the era of the multicellular. At first, "simple" animals such as jellyfish, hollow animals or worms emerged, later (next stage of development) animals with internal skeletal (skeletal) or external skeleton (arthropods) developed And birds, there is a similar sequence for the plants.

Anyone who has slipped over the Pacific waves of Santa Cruz to the neighboring island Isabela without help from the travel agent with the postboat of the Galapagos Islands feels like Darwin. You have finally solid ground under your feet, and the sea sickness leaves you a first time in peace.

The young British naturalist enters the firm's volcanic ground in September 1835, the year when the first railroad line is put into operation on the European mainland in Belgium, the printer Carl Bertelsmann founds a publishing company in Gutersloh, and the Bayerische Hypotheken- und Wechselbank in Munich And Hegel's "Lectures on Aesthetics" appear in book form. 1835 is, however, the year in which Charles Darwin collects those impressions, animal bellies and deeper insights that are decisive for Darwin theory of evolution.

This is what the legend says: On every island, the naturalist sees new species of animals which are very similar to those of the neighboring island. He concludes that these different species had a common ancestor, so that species are altered and not created by God, as the Bible says. Especially a group of animals is supposed to have given him this revolutionary insight when he made island hopping together with Captain Fitz-Roy: the finches living there with their different sized beaks.

The so-called "Darwin-Finches" today, together with illustrations, appear in every textbook, along with the explanation of how they came to their different beaks. On one of the young volcanic islands, which were still bird-free, there had once been a swastika of a mainland, almost a thousand miles distant. It. Their descendants colonize the island. And like the storm that once brought the Eve-Finkin over it, in the following millennia, the Founder-Finch also travels from there to the other islands. And depending on the food supply - insects, cacti, hard-shell fruits - the animals adapt themselves for generations, especially in the form of their beaks. They find their respective ecological niche.
This is Darwin theory of evolution - not in a nutshell, but in a few finches. How do species develop? Not by millions of creatures, but by other means. Why do they arise? Because, when the environmental conditions change, they also have to adapt. How does this adjustment come about? Through "natural selection". The individuals of a species differ slightly from one another, and the characteristics which are of advantage in the respective environment are determined by generations. Why are there so many species? Because of a kind of new species, for example by an "adaptive radiation", in which different ecological niches are occupied by the offspring. Just as the finches have done on Galapagos

Friday, 12 May 2017

New Model Could Speed Up Colon Cancer Research

MIT

Colon cancer buster

Gene editing science has been an area of growth for genetic engineers and researchers across the globe. With progressing research studies, newer treatment options are being devised and successfully delivered. One such research conducted by MIT researchers have used new gene-editing systems to generate colon tumors, resembling human tumors. A new approach to a pre-existing method in genetic sciences. This paves the path for further investigation into knowledge about disease progression.

Metastases and detection:

The highest cause of death due to colon cancer is metastases, which is difficult to detect. The disease progression is so high, that fatality is hard to control even after various treatment procedures. A recent study by the director of Koch Institute, Tyler Jacks, uses similar CRISPR- based technology to build mouse models of the disease, revolutionizing research in the field of oncology.

Various approaches have been used for modeling cancer, one of them being the usage of cancer cell lines in lab dishes. This poses a lot of limitations. Another method used is mutations, which is then genetically engineered in the mice.

Recent studies involving CRISPR, which consists of DNA- cutting enzyme Cas9 and short RNA guide strands, which specialize in targeting specific genome sequences. Using the same method scientists can make targeted mutations, by either removing or adding genes. The genes for Cas9 are packaged into lentiviruses, which are then injected into target organs of the mice, transferred by colonoscopy.

What follows?

Gene editing makes this procedure possible. By virtue of which, after establishment of the tumor, mutations can be added or deleted, making the study process more complicated and informative. The information includes the aspects of metastases, initiation and progression of the tumor from liver to various parts of the body. This also helps in studying the pattern of metastases which again is peculiar in human colon.

The MIT team delivered organoids with a mutated form of the APC gene, which when established, were introduced in a mutated form of KRAS, commonly found in colon and many other cancers. These new approaches have cut short research time and has sped up the process of gene editing.

Implications:

Gene editing, this newest form of development in the field of oncology helps in drug testing, making it more successful. This ensures widening of treatment options. Factors such as age, metabolism, sex etc are also taken into consideration while conducting the study. This helps scientists choose best options for individual patients.

The mice are studied over a period of time to gain results, even though the study is supposed to be prolonged, various new discoveries and science have made it easier and faster. This helps in minimizing of side-effects post treatment and other health implications by three folds.

Genetic research shows a progressive growth over the years, showing immense scope and employment options. Diseases are getting detected sooner and treatment delivered on time. This in turn saves a lot of time, cost, manpower and patient care excels automatically.

How Can We Measure Human Oxytocin Levels?

Smart way to measure the human oxytocin levels

Oxytocin is known in a number of ways as the hype hormone or simply a love and trust chemical. It might seem awkward but this thought process resulted in a number of studies which has tried to find the relationship between the oxytocin and feeling of trust. This particular research paper has been published as a meta-analysis by a group of Norwegian researchers who discovered that level of oxytocin present in blood doesn’t actually result in clearly measuring the same present in the brain. In short the presence of the said hormone in the blood has no relation with its levels in the central nervous system in the normal conditions so measuring it from the blood is quite contradictory.

Research brings some remarkable results

This group of researchers were led by Mathias Valstad who helped in combining the results of 7 different studies wherein the hormone present in the blood was compared against the hormone present in the central nervous system. Central oxytocin is usually measured in the cerebrospinal fluid which is taken from the spinal tap and during the course of their research it was made clear that the there is no evidence which shows a correlation between the said hormone present in the blood and the brain.
They also came to the conclusion that blood works a definite tool for simply assessing the impact of any kind of treatment on oxytocin but it isn’t helpful in studying the hormone in its best state. Usually the treatment utilized for increasing the hormone level included intrasanal oxytocin and blood plasma.

Researchers prove that mood swings aren’t related to plasma oxytocin

Over the time it has been seen a wide amount of research has been attempting to link that particular hormone concentration in the blood with the psychiatric disorder and physiological phenotypes. This has resulted in cementing the unwanted assumption that the effects of the hormone tends to rise or increase in relation to it amount in the blood. The present data collected by the researcher disputes these assumptions and asks for making different experiments for measuring the amount of hormone from the brain to the blood for better benefit of the human kind.

Earlier studies are quite disruptive in their assumptions

The current finding of the Norwegian researcher’s team has shed light on a number of false assumptions and results being crafted by the researchers in the past which helped in bringing a biased opinion for oxytocin. There are a number of studies which offers literally worse assumption like the psychological wellbeing is directly related to the urinary oxytocin. This can be interrelated example as the hormone tends to enter the urine from the blood itself. But this hormone is a proxy of the blood or plasma oxytocin and in no way it shows any relation with hormone present in the brain. It should be noted that this particular doesn’t question all the hormone related studies conducted over the years rather it tries to offer an answer whether the hormone is related to the trust or psychological traits in humans.

Tuesday, 9 May 2017

Why Our Brains are Split Into Right And Left

Brain

The reason behind our brain being split into right and left

For ages we have been taught that the right part of the human brain is associated with creativity while left brain is logical. This particular widely accepted dichotomy very cleverly dissects the brain into two equal proportion which deals with very specific set of intelligence but a recent has revealed that such division is wrong. In other words research has simply pointed that human brain can’t be divided into hemisphere as well as labelled with specific set of intelligence which defines a human being.
The left and right hemisphere of brain

Physically both hemisphere of the brain happens to be nearly identical and it was in 19th century when physicians started noticing there are some definite differences between the two hemispheres. Researchers were trying to answer the universal question of why the human brain is split in two hemispheres.

The reason behind our being divided two different hemispheres is fairly simple as it helps in delegating different tasks to different sides of the brain. This shows the might of the brain in handling the complexities of the world in a smart and influential manner. Further humans can also make use of the both the sides of the brain to focus on a single tasks or at different tasks without any issues.

With the evolution our brains had become adapted in using both hemispheres at the same time even for different work which is also known as parallel processing. But as an individual grows he started depending or showing preference to one side of the brain more than the other which has helped in shaping the common notion that left side is widely associated with creativity while right is associated with logic. 

Lots of experiments & researches yet fewer answers

Over the years a number of research works has been done to find right kind of asymmetries to define how the human brain works. Quite interestingly experiments with the genes has helped in affirming that the lateral asymmetries of the brain known to influence our decisions to a great extent.

 It is fascinating to note that more than 40 genes get implicated in order to determine whether an individual turn to be a right or left handed and certainly the environmental factors also plays a vital role in it. Some genetic studies have even stated gender also plays a crucial role along with the genes in order to determine which hand we are likely to prefer.

Researchers have found a unique bias in human for the right side, which is not just contained to the hands. It will come as a surprise that the babies likely to suck their right thumb and happens to turn their heads in the right direction while lying down.

A vast majority of people had been seen turning their heads towards the right side while going for a kiss. So it can be easily assumed that environmental factors play a major role rather than the genes when it comes to choosing the right or left side preference.

Monday, 8 May 2017

Untreatable Superbug Infections on the Rise

Life-Taking Superbug is on the Go! 


With the increase in pollution, global warming, malnutrition, hybridization of vegetables and fruits the entire world is being engulfed by the vicious circle of health disorders. As per the data provided by NHS depicts, that there is a continuous increase in incurable superbug and this leads to the increase in number of sick people affected by CPE. The figures were where much less in 2002, where only 3 were heard to be affected by CPE per annum in 2002 and that has now increased to 2000 per annum. The data reveals that the life of almost every individual is at stake. The health syndromes are declining day by day with the rise in superbugs.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention based in US has suggested that 40 to 50 % of the patients inflicted by CPE infection in blood loses their life. The figures seem to increase day by day, as the 66 NHS Trusts in England, Public Health England said that since 2009, approximately 81 number of people succumbed to this deadly CPE disease and the numbers of death are increasing day by day heading up to 2000 every year.

The matter seems to get worst in coming days as Professor Nigel Brown, who is a member of the society for General Microbiology, says that the bacteria that carries CPE is almost everywhere. He also revealed an astonishing fact to the Sky News, saying that this bacterium is very much present in our guts and some of these CPE bacteria is strong enough to completely shatter the Carbapenem antibiotic by nullifying its capacity to fight these infectious superbugs.

These bacteria are so powerful that it gets transmitted into your blood from the gut and makes you sick enough to send you to the hospital and it is so infectious that it gets transmitted from one person to another by just a minor contact and once you are inflicted by these disease they spread rapidly and overpowers your entire body attacking your blood and then it finally becomes almost next to impossible to get immediate relief from its consequences. It breaks down your metabolism and curbs down the functioning of your entire system and the final destination is the hospitals bed and if the situation is not brought under control immediately then the patient can even die.

The death and survival rates are still not clear to depict that whether the survival rates have decreases or increased, as some health institutions have still not provided the accurate figures of death and survival rates so that a conclusion can be drawn to denote who is on the winning side the deadly superbug or the advanced medical treatments.

Emily Morris, who has survived in the case of superbug infection depending on antibiotics, shares her experience and she has acclaimed this sickness to be more powerful and hence it cannot be defeated so easily and in most cases death is inevitable. So, proper measures should be taken by the health experts to save the world from this life taking bug.

Friday, 5 May 2017

Artificial Womb That Can Keep the Premature Babies Alive





Artificial Womb
Test tube babies will become a thing of past with this innovation and breakthrough made by the scientists which might scare some people or make them happy altogether. Scientists had come up with an artificial womb which can keep pre term babies alive outside of the womb. The look and build of this device will remind the people of coming out right from any science fiction but it has been tested successfully on the baby lambs with impressive results. Very soon it will be made available for trails on the critically ill human babies coming from the age group of three to five years.

How does the artificial womb works?

The artificial womb is way ahead of the traditional incubators due to the use of the extra uterine support device which helps in closely replicating the conditions of the real womb. The next best thing introduced in this device is the presence of the external gas exchange machine which works just like the mother’s placenta and helps in keeping the blood circulation in the heart and body at optimum level. Scientists have ensured that there is no mechanical pump present in the device because studies have shown that even a gentle artificial pressure can turn fatal for the underdeveloped heart.

Scientists have made use of the synthetic amniotic which is filled with nutrients which essentially flows in as well as out of the temperature controlled of the bio bag kept in the near-sterile state. The aim of the scientists were to produce such an environment which can keep the premature babies safely outside the womb while their critical internal organs like lungs and heart develops to their best ability.

It is worth noting that babies born prematurely within 23 weeks posses a very weak chance of making through that alive. Thereby this system will certainly help in increasing the chances of the premature babies to develop healthily. This system is way superiors than the traditional technology and equipments available at the hospitals to take of the 23 week old baby.

Health industry experts are enthralled

One of the health industry experts has stated that there is certainly no technology which will eventually end up in replacing the mother’s womb right at the earliest stages of the fetal development. There are theories which are doing round in the past years wherein human can be reproduced artificially from the embryo completely. But such a thing is far from reality at the moment as human beings are way different from the lambs.

It is worth noting that lambs tend to grow faster taking just about five months to their full terms while it takes eight months for human. Secondly the lambs are way larger than the human baby at three times. One of the experts has also explained that this artificial womb is not designed to replace the womb required in the first half of the pregnancy rather it will help in specifically treating the extremely premature babies in a new ways.

Tuesday, 2 May 2017

Internet Crystal Ball Can Predict Risk of Heart Disease, Diabetes, Study Finds

Diabetes and cardiovascular disease predictions become easy with online crystal ball

Diabetes and heart disorders are now common problems to lots of people. And to cure these two diseases, many patients take medications almost regularly. Usually, we take steps, as soon as we determine any symptom of diabetes or heart-related diseases. However, now researchers have created a tool with the help of which you will be able to predict these diseases. They have introduced an online crystal ball that acts as metabolic calculator and has much power to know the possibilities of diabetes in a person. In fact, it works more precisely in compared to that of a conventional process.

Predict disease to stay safe-

The researchers of University of Florida and Virginia have invented this new system and they expect that it will allow many people to change their everyday lifestyle completely. Thus, lots of users may be able to keep away from the trouble and expenditures, which are associated with serious diseases.

In the past, cardiovascular problem, stroke and diabetes, were diagnosed, simply by having an observation at the blood pressure, cholesterol, HDL and obesity level of a person. Those, who have abnormalities, are found to have some metabolic disorder. They physicians inform them that they’ve quite higher risk of having health issues in future.

To explain something about the risk prediction, it is to be said that the physicians will be able to make out, if you may have cardiovascular issues in the coming years. Dr. Mark of UVA School has also informed that the doctors will be able to give much accurate data to the patients, who are vulnerable to the stated diseases. Thus, with more perception of the diseases, the patients also get motivation for making some adjustments.

How the calculator is different from traditional methods-

Traditional analysis is not effective to consider all the factors, like sex, race or background. It has been noted, Afro-American citizens do not show up metabolic issues in the diagnosis. However, still they have much possibility of cardiovascular syndrome and diabetes (Type 2).

But, the new crystal ball, invented recently, evaluates the usual risky issues and considers all the factors, like customs or gender. It is able to generate a comprehensible score that indicates metabolic seriousness. A research has detected that the predictions of web-based calculator are highly relevant with heart disease or diabetes issues. Another detailed study has involved thirteen thousand people for the experiment. The new tool has acted as a good predictor of diseases. The device includes scoring mechanism in order to work out the risk. All the information may be sent to doctors, who can take steps as preventive measures.

The calculator is accessible as free tool. More thorough study is needed to settle on accurate cut-off score for signifying the risk level. Though it is mainly healthcare experts, who have to use this, any person may utilize it to know about his health.

Thus, online crystal ball is a good innovation in the medical science to help many people, who have probability of experiencing diabetes and heart-oriented diseases.

Monday, 1 May 2017

A Bright 'Glow Stick' Marker for Cells

Glow Stick

Glow stick- Now finds its usage for imaging cells

Whether it is an outdoor event or kids’ birth anniversary party, one of the common items, often used for many occasions is a glow stick. This simple, versatile and attractive object draws the attention of children. Many kids like to crack it in order to watch the glow of light, just as a firefly. These special sticks consist of some chemicals, which may be safe to the children, only if the plastic material remains intact.

Various applications of chemiluminescence-

If you have ever dealt with glow stick, you perhaps know how wonderful chemiluminescence is. It can be considered as a type of chemical light. To say clearly, Chemiluminescence refers to the generation of light rays by initiative chemical process. Multiple chemicals have a reaction with each other in order to produce something, which gets broken and release some energy.

Such kind of process has its application for detecting blood in the criminal scenes. It is also useful to know concentration level of various elements, present in biological specimens. Recently, a group of scientists have latest chemiluminescent probe. They have claimed that it is maximum three thousand times brighter, in compared to other probes, available earlier. Moreover, it is able to work well in liquid.

Chemiluminescent probe- With a new design and different function-

This probe is such an analytical tool, which is highly sensitive and much helpful for immunoassays, categorizing DNA of any person and analyzing illegal acts. In most of the cases, there is an application of cocktail. Besides, a special molecule is present in order to identify some species by producing weak rays of light. Among the other components, we can mention the surfactant and fluorophore. They help in strengthening signals so that the level may become identifiable.

But, during the process of transferring to various molecules, some amount of energy gets lost. The researchers have informed that they have adjusted electronic composition of the new model of probes. It enables them not only to boost up the existing fluorescence but also to develop an emission structure, consisting only one component. The experts hope that this system will be useful for a variety of applications.

The scientists have thoroughly looked into a number of emitters, and also tested all the alternations, found during the time of emission. They have observed that with the addition of two atoms, it is possible to have Chemiluminescent probe, which is brighter and more dazzling than any average standard probe, present in market.

Besides, the molecules can be used for cells. While deal with such molecule, the experts have created some sensors in order to make out a number of chemicals, which are biologically applicable. The molecule is also useful to determine the function of many enzymes. With the use of microscopy, it is also possible to snap the cells. Thus, in future, the researchers will get an effective method in order to create chemiluminescent sensors, helpful for assessing the activities of different types of cells.

Friday, 28 April 2017

High Quality Early Childhood Education has Significant Benefits

 Early Childhood
Modern daycare is characterized by process and quality orientation. In doing so, the contracts of education, education and care for each child must be guaranteed. Children's educational biographies are based on the findings of brain research in the first seven years of life. This is where the children's day-care centre comes to the fore as a preparation for school-based learning.

First, the present milieu deals with the conceptual explanation of relevant terms in the context of the elementary area. In the further course, the historical background of childcare will be discussed. The second part is devoted to the educational task of the kindergarten in the context of the latest findings of pedagogy and neurosciences. In the following, the question about the meaning and the effect of secure binding relationships for children with disabilities is presented and the findings of crib research are presented in relation to the theory of attachment. The postmodern perspective of seeing children as actively participating in their development becomes apparent in the context of the transition model. Research findings from the UK's Effective Provision of Pre-School Education (EPPE) study provide initial answers to the question of early childhood education, care and support.

The Elementary

According to Aden-Grossmann, the elementary area comprises all family-oriented pre-primary education, educational and care facilities, according to the kindergarten and comparable forms of child day care, from the age of three to the beginning of the school. It forms the lowest level of education and is characterized by an independent concept of education (elementary pedagogics). Thus, the various forms of child day care are recognized as educational institutions, but they are not fully integrated into the education system, but rather form a preliminary stage and remain associated with youth welfare.

Early childhood

The life cycle from birth to school is called early childhood. These are divided into the first six years of age (age 1), the infant (age 2 and 3) and the nursery or preschooler (age 4 to 6). Contrary to previous opinions, the knowledge that children from birth are independent subjects with specific competencies has become more and more popular today with the increasing cooperation between different disciplines (including neurobiology, pediatrics, child psychiatry and infant education). The paradigm shift in the everyday and scientific understanding is particularly noteworthy when, since the beginning of the 1990s, the concept of a "competent infant" has been developed, which is ready for learning and interacting immediately after birth. Thus neither passively nor alone to his instincts - a dominant view so far.

Until the beginning of the 21st century, further changes in the perspective of the early childhood complex have been made. In the field of early child hood education, the child has long been the focus of education and care. A trend is today's view that children in the first years of life are "people in a sensitive development phase” which is characterized by "extremely high learning ability". They need the protection of adults as well as adequate support, which encourages and accompanies them in their researcher urge. In this context, education is understood in a comprehensive sense, related to the emotional, cognitive and social development of the child.



Research Suggests Noninvasive Way to Suppress Epileptic Seizures

 Epileptic Seizures
Humans are mortal and so they are prone to diseases and disorders in the limited life span they have. However, some disorders become so critical that they are unable to get into order. Often we hear some deaths which are caused by the major diseases or the malfunctions in the body. This is something which should be prevented or taken care of in the earlier stage only. Epilepsy is one such disorder which can cause seizures in the brain.

THE SEIZURE

Well, the person after suffering from seizures will have the brain impacted. However, the main reason for the seizure is that the brain signals overshoot the normal limit. After that they create some sort of abnormal electrical activity which leads to the malfunction of the brain. They can create further twitches and convulsions.

THE CURE

Well, the science or the technology never fails to amuse us and so it has done in this time also undoubtedly. Thanks to the researchers or the scientists from the famous university of Carnegie and University of California, they have been able to come up with an exciting device which can help the multitude to mitigate the epileptic seizures with this non-invasive approach. The large number of neurons trigger the impulse in the brain and so the people suffer from the seizures. Their theory or the approach is based on a phenomenon commonly known as the Anderson localisation. The theory goes like this that how random disruptions of a medium can be the reasons for decreasing waves. The same concept was applied to curing of seizures.

THE STUDY

During the experiment done, the famous researchers have tried by simulating the activity of a tonic-clonic seizure known grand mal seizure. After that they changed the parameters which were responsible for triggering the neurons. It is always recommended to have the seizures cured in the early stages of life before something critical happens. This method is helpful as the seizure is experienced or during the onset of the triggering of neurons.

THE PROCESS

The patients are required to wear a device which would non-invasively suppress the seizures using a novel modality. It would launch a random pattern of the ultrasonic waves which would target the neurons. The doctors tried new paradigms which would interface the ones that are not prey to the conventional massive attacks. The researchers have brought together the very field of science, biology and maths to come up with this technique.

THE FUTURE

If the device is spread to the 50 million people who suffer from the epileptic seizures, it would be a great help. However, one should be guided in the most efficient manner to deal with this these epileptic seizures are mainly due to the collective pathological activity of the neuron. The researchers believe that the seizures can be cured in this fashion with the help of this device. But it has to be done during the onset of the seizures which would prevent people from further suffering.

Wednesday, 26 April 2017

An old drug with new potential: WWII chemical-weapon antidote shows early promise as treatment for spinal cord injuries

1

A New Medicine Built On Previous Grounds To Cure Spinal Cord Injuries.

A discovery in the field of medical science can never be forgotten, with new researches coming up in contemporary times; it may get old, but it will surely not lose its potential. Referring back to the old is a common phenomenon in every genre based on which new horizons can be explored.

Recent discovery has unveiled that a drug which was used during World War II to cure the pain and suffering that occurs due to severe injury taking place in your spinal cord. It works tremendously to retard neurotoxin that takes such a kind of injury to a different level of seriousness. This remarkable antidote is now leading to the evolution of a medicine that can cure several other injuries.

This drug is a potent suppresser of neurotoxin, also known as acrolein, that gets manufactured in our body when our nerve cells gets damaged and together with the formulation of neurotoxin if biochemical reactions also began to take place then your spinal cord’s injury will get worsen day by day. This is a very serious stage that can lead to paralysis if the seriousness of this injury is not brought under control. This can be life threatening as well.

The researchers have now discovered a new drug based on the same formula. Dimercapol is sure to keep in check all the toxins that builds up the chemical feature required for the formation of acrolein, instead transmits another toxin that will attack the toxins responsible for the formation of acrolein.

A professor of neuroscience and biomedical engineering in Purdue University, known as Riyi Shi; confirmed that Dimercapol is a very effective medicine that helps in eradicating acrolein and if fails to erase it completely then it helps in making the acrolein less toxic.

Shi has also confirmed that acrolein formation in the body has a severe drastic effect and leads to several other diseases to crop up. Pathologically it has a negative effect on your entire system and it also leads to health issues related to damaging of curtailing tissues, which in a way is responsible for the symptoms depicting serious illness. Sometimes the effects are such that it can lead to several other injuries in your body that has the capability to expand to the adjacent tissues.

Acrolein is responsible for disrupting a primary component known as lipids. The toxin is responsible for hampering lipids, which gets damaged because of the compounds, very commonly addressed as free radicals.

Free radicals are very dangerous for one’s health, as they are very reactive compounds to get generated after a trauma and leads to neurodegenerative diseases. Retarding of lipids is very close to several pathological problems occurring out of any severe trauma or diseases, the injuries and diseases includes spinal cord problems, traumatic injury of brain, several sclerosis and Alzheimer’s disease. The drugs that are responsible in performing the task of acrolein holders, is now considered as the most innovative strategy in keeping the concentration of neurotoxin under control.

Tuesday, 25 April 2017

Smart Tool Predicts Pregnancy Complications in Mothers

neonatal
Credit:Bridget Colla
Researchers at Queen Mary University of London had come together to develop which will help in saving both mother and babies lives. This tool effectively works by predicting whether the women in question are with early onset of the pre-eclampsia or are they fit to prolong their pregnancy. If you are wondering what eclampsia is then it is a condition which is known to affect as much as one per cent of the pregnant women and it is known to lead to extremely fata complication which might include the liver, kidney failure, lung problems, seizures and bleeding disorders.

How dangerous is pre-eclampsia?

Each year more than 1000 babies die due to complications rising from the pre-eclampsia. The PREP study conducted by team resulted in finding two highly successful method which helps in predicting the risk of the complications with an accuracy rate of the 84 percent among mothers. This research was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) and it has already been published in the BMC medicine.

On the lead researcher associated with this study and development of the smart tool has stated that quite often babies are delivered prematurely which ultimately brings complications for the mother. Till today there is no robust test or guidelines to follow during the early birth scenario but the decision rest completely with the physician as well as mother in this regard.

It will be boon to the neonatal care

Currently the neonatal intensive care is in fragile state where one finds an acute shortage of the beds with higher hospital costs. Most of the hospital wards are concerned with the mother’s health and neonatal care takes a backseat. Secondly the cost of the facilities is so high that it becomes quite an expensive affair to check upon the pre-eclampsia tests.

Researchers had studied about 946 women who had shown the signs of early onset of the pre-eclampsia and they had been brought from 53 NHS trusts. Now the data was gathered for the participants through the team by carefully mentioning the age, gestation, blood pressure, liver & kidney function along with varied other parameters. The team of researchers were entrusted with the task of developing a mathematical model which will be able to predict the risk of complications in the participants who are the pregnant mothers.

How this smart tool works?

This tool has been named PREP model which will be helpful for the clinician in order to determine whether the mother is required to be transferred to the intensive maternal and neonatal care. The mother’s data and mathematical method will work together in analysing the mother’s health and it will help in figuring the high risk women from others.

Secondly the clinicians can make use of the PREP model in their regular practice through extremely well planned and robust clinical trials. This will help in understanding the subsequent rise of the pre-eclampsia among the pregnant women and it will also help in pre-emptive measure against it.

Friday, 21 April 2017

Zoonotic Diseases- An Assessment of Their Growth and Transmission

Poultry
When an infectious substance is transmitted from one creature to the body of human being, some internal processes are started. It is called as pathogenesis of viruses. This pathogenesis indicates the basic replication, which reaches the specific organs in our body. A procedure through which the replication of pathogen takes place is related to receptors, which are specific to the organs or cells. However, zoonoses demonstrate some intricate patterns.

Zoonotic disorders may be seen in almost any place. In most of the developing nations, they access our body through food chain, and then, they get increased in due course.

Zoonotic issues in different countries-

If you visit the UK and Vietnam, then you can see that people are now communicating or dealing with animals in the same way. On the other hand, in Mekong Delta, there is a very common scene, where people maintain vast range of livestock in a place, which is adjacent to their residences. In this country, uterus and blood of pig are often consumed in raw form. So, Streptococcus suis is the foremost reason behind a type of meningitis. However, there is a problem in the process of growing infections. It is not simple to predict of their development and the possibility of their response.

As lots of intricacies are present in the appearance of zoonotic syndrome, it seems to be impossible to identify the transmission at the initial stage in any animal or some human being. The main reason of more complication of the issue is that observation system is not good in many poorly developed countries. These countries are dependent on only healthcare specialists, who diagnose the problem.

How the infections can be diagnosed easily-

The best fact is that with the help of zoonotic possibilities of any animal, it is easy to recognize them before they are transmitted to our body. But, for some reason, if this is not accomplished, everyone must be conscious of those infections. As soon as the infection has been diagnosed, all people have to be treated without delay. The seriousness of the condition is also to be analyzed with the clinical experts.

Diagnostic data is highly important to know about the transmission of Shigella sonnei. People, with serious diarrhoeal disorder, have such organism. At the time of scientific observation, it has been noticed that Shigella considerably resists fluoroquinolones, which are often used for treating infection.

All the findings from research were much unexpected. Such approach may not be a good strategy in the long run to prevent or observe any pathogen. Lots of improvements are needed in infrastructure in order to have a better model, mainly in low developed nations.

Since 2007, Vietnam already has started showing some changes. Stability in political domain and investment of economic asset has good results in the field of healthcare. However, still, there are lots of challenges. Southeastern regions of Asia are the major areas, where lots of steps are taken to secure the health of people.

Wednesday, 12 April 2017

Researchers Develop New Solution for Independent Living: the ‘Empathetic Home’

Empathetic home to give more independence to the senior citizens

We know that with an increase of our age, we need special care to maintain our body. In some cases, the family members give an extra attention to their aged relatives. Sometimes, caregivers are also employed to look after the elderly people. However, now, it has become much easier for anyone to care for the aged persons.

TU/e is going to introduce a new way of living independently. The researchers of this university have suggested a special type of environment, which is called as empathetic home. This special setting is named so because it empathizes with elderly residents of a house. The technology, involved in it, works as a caregiver. According to the explanation, provided by the researchers, some sensors are to be installed on the floors and walls.

Best home for handicaps and aged persons-

The scientists have planned for this environment, considering the fact that lots of citizens in Netherlands are ageing. If we look back at the year, 2013, we may see that the age of more than 2 million people is over sixty five. It is assumed that by the year 2030, it will reach almost 4 million.

 That is why some guidelines are also given from government in order to allow the aged persons to survive independently. In case of handicaps also, the settings must enable them to spend time in a standard environment. But, the main problem is that there are not enough accommodation units, which are compatible to fulfill all the diverse needs of elderly citizens.

Empathetic home does all your jobs-

Masi Mohammadi, one of the members of TU/e, has said that a good home should offer not merely a roofing structure over our head. It’s really a good idea, if that house takes the responsibility of giving care to all the senior inhabitants. Masi also added that the empathetic design of home has the ability of recognizing the residents and giving them response to their requirements. It also helps people to do workouts and provides them with customized care to ensure healthy life.

The main target with empathetic home is to make the room automated. The technology, relevant to it, is referred to as smart. And it is to be integrated flawlessly to your house. It is also possible to regulate the requirements of all residents and to support them in their everyday activities.

Regions selected for testing the new home-

Masi Mohammadi has decided to express her own vision about the special home. That is why she wants to test out some concrete components, which are to be added to your home. However, there should be an exceptional association with 3 advanced centers, which are in three regions, Hertogenbosch, Roermond and Eindhoven zone. These are labs, where the output of this new innovation will be researched thoroughly.

The concept of edible wall is to be launched. It’s a wall with vertical garden that comprises herbs. Seniors do not need to give much effort for gardening. Besides, the smart flooring also allows prevents the possibilities of slip and fall accidents.

Tuesday, 11 April 2017

Brain's 'GPS' Does a Lot More Than Just Navigate

Well, the most important part of our body is nothing than the brain. Often it is termed as the CPU of the body as it helps in taking decisions and thinking. Without the brain, a person is useless. However, the brain does more than just navigating or helping us to learn. The recent study or the report from the scientists have revealed that the region which helps in spatial navigation also help in cognitive navigation. Well, this is indeed a wonderful discovery by the scientists.

THE STUDY

The recent study by the scientists revealed that a region in the brain called the hippocampus becomes active when the rats move around the environment. All that research showed that the cells in the entorhinal cortex fire when the creatures reach a certain specific location. This has led to the discovery that the brain creates a mapping of the outside environment on its own.

 This is like a mental positioning system to help the animal identify where its location is in the environment. The famous researchers in the Princeton has found that the same regions of the brain are active when the brain is roaming in the different kind of environment.

It may also take the sounds into consideration. The experiment was done with the help of the rats. They found that the rats responded to the different sounds after listening to the sounds and it matched with the similar traits when the rodents were roaming in their own backyard.

THE MYSTERY

Well, it is a long mystery in the field of neuroscience that how the part of the brain called hippocampus could relate by mapping the external environment and also in creating memories. If the people have a damaged hippocampus, they are unable to form memories which is a major drawback for the people.

The researchers state that the combination of both hippocampus and the nearby entorhinal cortex help in making maps which are cognitive in nature. They involve tasks like memory and learning.

When the rats were given a different task like reconnoitering, the researchers have found some unusual evidence in the circuit of the hippocampus and the entorhinal cortex. They have chosen as the parameter to experiment.

THE MONITORING

The researchers then monitored the activities of the rats specially the electrical activity of the neurons present inside the brain. They found that the rodents were able to relate the sounds along with the frequency. The rats were trained to do some specific tasks like pulling the lever down bases on the sound frequency. After the performance, the rats knew that they would be rewarded.

This helped them to perform the tasks in the most efficient manner. The observing team found that the patterns of the neuronal triggering along with their behaviour. Slowly they advanced with the frequencies which were similar with the revolving around in the space.

Finally, it was concluded that the hippocampal cells become active when they are in a particular place and the entorhinal cells come into picture when the rodents travel through some specific places or locations.

Monday, 10 April 2017

Modeling the Female Reproductive Tract

EVATAR
With the ever increasing and developing folds of science has suggested the fact that there is nothing in this world that can spare itself from the spell of scientific innovation. The scientific discoveries and researches are going to the extent of erasing the world of impossibilities. Soon there will be a time when there would not be any question whose answer will not be there with science. May that be any serious disease or any natural calamity everything can now be subjugated with the notches of scientific evolution surpassing all levels of revolution.

Menstruation is very common to every woman. It is a natural phenomenon that will take place in every woman’s life at the appointed time. There are only few who remain unattended by this natural occurrence. In Chicago one of the Northwestern medicine has revealed the fact that a female reproductive organ can be developed that is small enough to fit in the hands and has the capability to denote the future of research leading to curing of several diseases that occurs in a female reproductive organ. It is sure to make every impromptu situation change into an intended reality.

The scientists have named this scientific innovation EVATAR which based on technology and comprises of tissues of humans that will simultaneously lead to testing of the sustaining capacity of every new drug, to project how much reliable the medicine is to affect the reproductive system of a female.

EVATAR is also said to grasp the pulse of very disease that can occur in a female reproductory organ, measuring the intensity of diseases like endometriosis, fibroids (which is most commonly found in maximum women), cancer and even infertility.

The scientists have got the idea of this terrific revolution is by using the cells of an individual that will lead to the formation of an identical model similar to their reproductive system. EVATAR is said to comprise of ovaries of 3-D models, fallopian tubes, uterus, cervix, vagina and even liver that contains a unique kind of fluid that will pump blood from all the other parts mentioned so that the desired function can be performed. This EVATAR has a structure that of a cube which is not at all big.

The lead founder of this scientific innovation known as Teresa Woodruff, who is a named scientist of reproductive organs and also the director of the Women’s Health Research Institute; situated at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, suggests that this is no way a revolutionary innovation; rather she claims that this evolution is entirely based on the pre-existing theories of technology that sustains the whole idea of artificial formation of a naturally existing norms to deliver a natural result from all perspectives that will also cure several other diseases and problems that a woman has to go through just because of a natural formation that takes place in her body on which she does not have any control. She will have to accept what comes to her may that be good or bad, but due this innovation some problems can at least be dealt with if not all.