Showing posts with label Zika. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Zika. Show all posts

Monday, 12 June 2017

Zika Transmitting Mosquitoes have Resistance to Commonly Used Insecticides

Mosquitoes
The world has witnessed some of the greatest virus that has taken a huge number of lives. The countries of Africa are the worst affected. To help them, the WHO has come forward but when it comes for a new type for virus like the ZIKA or the DENGUE, the WHO has also failed. We were only allowed to stay in dark. But recently a renowned professor from The Institute of Environmental and Human Health (TIEHH) at Texas Tech University has stated that there is high possibility that the world would be shaken by the outbreak of ZIKA virus. The person himself is not sure where the breakout may be. He believes it can be in States or it can be in any isolated place. But whatever may be in the future, he is ready to fight with all resources.

THE RESOURCES

He has decided to start the most important research and for this he is getting funded by whooping amount of $2000000 from the Texas Department of State Health Services. The main objective is to get the knowledge of the mosquito insecticides and its effectiveness for which it has been used against the ZIKA virus and other dangerous diseases. The primary objective is to eliminate the virus as it has already taken a huge number of lives. So, it has to be stopped before another outbreak creates a chaos in the world. If not eliminate them, the virus has to be controlled in the most efficient manner. This would help in preventing the spreading of the virus. For the researchers, the baffling question is whether the virus is resistant to mosquito insecticides. If they are resistant to mosquito insecticides, then it is a great matter of concern.

THE TESTS

Presley, who has already tested the ZIKA outbreak much before the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Science, Space and Technology in May 2016, has been a part of the committee who has been working for bringing mosquito diseases under control and the transmission of disease. They have been working very hard in order to restore the momentum but it has only got worse.

EXPECTATIONS

However, the time will decide whether the virus have become resistant to the mosquito insecticides. They have been used in the state of Texas and the reports would reveal everything. So, we need to keep our patience as this is a major concern in terms of health and immunity all over the world. If the reports are positive, then it would be very helpful to combat the dangerous effect and threat of the ZIKA virus.

PREVENTION

Brazil was literally taken down by the ZIKA virus last year. The most important and basic thing is that we need to keep the mosquitoes out from the house by taking various methods. It is better to keep windows closed after evening and have the room air-conditioned. The virus keeps on mutating and gets adapted to the changes and this makes the condition even worse.

Wednesday, 7 September 2016

Singapore Confirms 41 Locally Transmitted Zika Virus Cases


zika

The outbreak

About 41 cases of Zika virus were confirmed at Singapore which was likely transmitted locally. The health ministry stated that majority of those that were infected were not native workers, and all resided or laboured within the same area of the country. None of them had travelled to areas which were affected by Zika recently. While seven are still admitted in hospitals, thirty four patients have completely recovered from the disease.

Generally, Zika has moderate effects but has been related to many birth defects which can be severe. It is alleged of bringing about a condition known as microcephaly, which is condition where deformation is persistent and babies are born with smaller heads than usual. Zika is usually spread by vectors like mosquitoes, but under certain circumstances can be sexually transmitted as well. It was declared by the World Health Organization, commonly called as WHO as a universal public health emergency in the month of February.

The symptoms of Zika

  • The disease could rarely prove to be fatal. Usually out of five only one patient infected by the same may develop and show the symptoms 
  • The symptoms could be anything ranging from headaches, Pain in the joints, rashes, sore eyes or reddening of the eyes also sore eyes or simply a mild fever. 
  • Another rare symptom that is also linked to the infection is Guillain-Barre syndrome, which is an uncommon nervous system disorder, can cause short term paralysis 
  • As of now there has been no form of vaccination or drug developed against the infection by researchers, because of which the affected are instructed to get rest and to consume a great amount of fluids.
In May, Singapore announced it’s very first imported case of Zika. It was a local of 48 years of age who had recently made a trip to Brazil, the place where the outbreak began. As on Saturday, they declared that another Malaysian woman who was 37 years of age had been infected by the virus locally.

So far she is the only female case confirmed. Singapore stands as a home for a hug number of construction workers who are not native to the country, most of them originating from the Southern parts of Asia. Out of the 41 cased that were declared on Sunday, thirty six cases were of overseas workers who worked in the same construction area.

The work at that particular site had come to a halt after they found that the housekeeping was not acceptable with probable breeding habitats complementing to the breeding of mosquitoes. In a statement the ministry said that they could not eliminate or exclude further community spread, since many of those that have been tested positive also reside or work in various other parts of Singapore.

At the end it also added that they expect to recognize more such cases which are positive. All those providing medical services in Singapore have been forewarned to be more vigilant then needed and to instantly report to the health ministry if they find any symptoms associated with Zika.

Friday, 12 August 2016

Zika Linked to Baby Joint Deformities

Joint Deformities

The newfound problem


Experts fear that Zika infection experienced during gestation could cause deformed limbs in the baby. In the journal BMJ, seven questionable circumstances are described by Brazilian scientists from Recife, which is the city at the heart of the Zika epidemic.

The virus has not only managed to spread across more than America and prevented people from physically viewing the Olympic host nation but now has been causing a severe foetal brain defect. Pregnant women are advised to be cautious. Expectant mothers should not commute to area with Zika, and those living within such zones should avoid coming in contact with mosquitoes which are carriers for the disease. Researchers now come to an agreement that Zika is able to cause a long-lasting brain damage to developing foetuses in the womb.

The virus caused Zika can conveniently pass through the placenta from the mother to the foetus. And there is a budding proof that it can initiate an uncommon, weakening state of the nerves in adults, which is called Guillian-Barre syndrome. Dr Vanessa van der Linden and her team established in Brazil said that they are now come across limb joint problems and defects in new born children that could be a possible caused of Zika.

Zika outbreak


They studied seven babies alleged to have be exposed to Zika infection in the hospital, and had born that they were born with knee, elbow, wrist and or finger, hip joint problems that looked appropriate with a medical analysis called arthrogryposis.

The defects of arthrogryposis, (also called crooked joints) are results of faulty muscles; few too contracted or tight and some too relaxed, that have stretched and help the child’s developing body in abnormal positions. Dr. Linden’s team are dubious that the Zika virus affect nerve centres of the brain that supply the muscles around the joints, rather than the joint itself. This idea was supported when scans of the babies’ brain were studied.

All the seven babies that were examined were confirmed negative for
extra pre-birth infections, like HIV and rubella that could have been a probable cause of their defects. Most had limb deformities as well as microcephaly. She also said that, from the time she began writing up her findings, she came across 14 more children with problems alike and is running additional tests. From the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Professor Jimmy Whitworth commented that while not solid evidence, the proof that Zika might to be blameworthy was “pretty enthralling.”

He added that, ‘Microcephaly is the most recognizable form of pre-birth infection with Zika, however it is becoming crystal clear that’s just a portion of the whole range of damage that the virus can cause. The challenge was putting an end to the spread of the infection and showing some concern for those who could possibly be affected in both the long term as well as short term.

Tests show that the present epidemic could be carried on for three to four years. They also suspect that there will be tens of thousands of new-born children who could be infected with Zika. Meeting their psychosocial and corporeal needs will be the actual challenge."

Friday, 4 March 2016

Zika 'Might Cause' Guillain-Barré Syndrome

Zika

Zika Virus Cause Severe Neurological Disorder


New research has provided the first evidence that Zika virus could cause severe neurological disorder known as Guillain-Barre syndrome. The study had been carried out utilising blood samples of 42 individuals who had been ill in an earlier outbreak.

According to the Lancet authors they had developed the neurological issue around six days after the Zika infection and leading scientists defined the study as `compelling’. In early February, Zika was considered to be a public health emergency of international concern by the World Health Organisation – WHO.

The virus transmitted by mosquitoes had caused apprehension in central and South America due to its suspected connection to under-developed brains in infants, which is a condition called microcephaly. However experts have questioned whether Zika could be connected to another medical condition also. Guillain-Barre syndrome causes muscle weakness and in some severe cases, breathing problem may need intensive care.

As per the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Guillain-Barre syndrome is a disorder where the body’s immune system tends to attack part of the peripheral nervous system. The direct cause of this condition is not known though it starts with a tingling sensation and increases till some muscles seem to be completely paralyzed.

Condition Not Contagious


It could affect anyone and is not contagious where several of the patients seem to recover but some may have a certain amount of weakness. In the study where the blood of 42 individuals with GBS at the Centre Hospitalier de Polynesie Francaise had been tested, 41 of them had Zika neutralizing antibodies in their system.

Since the body only produces antibodies as a reaction to infection, researchers were of the conclusion that most of the GBS patients had been infected with Zika. Besides, most of the patients who had GBS had reported that they experienced Zika symptoms during the last six days.

Researcher thereafter compared the GBS patients with a control group out of which only 56% were carrying Zika neutralizing antibodies, a evidently lower number than GBS patients. Though the result indicated a strong connection between Zika and GBS, researchers were cautious in noting that it was the first study linking the two and the research needed to verify it.

Countries with Zika Need to Prepare for Additional Case of Nerve Disorder


Professor Arnaud Fontanet, the lead author form the Institut Pasteur in Paris had stated that these patients tended to deteriorate more rapid than is usually seen with Guillain-Barre. But once they were over the acute phase of the condition, their recovery seems to improve.

None of the 42 patients died though some still required assistance while walking, many months after their illness. The researcher state that countries with Zika need to prepare for additional case of the nerve disorder. Professor Hugh Willison from Glasgow University had informed BBC News that on an individual level, one should not be frightening people into thinking that those affected with Zika infection would automatically get Guillain-Barre since the risk is generally rather low.

However, if a million people tend to get infected with Zika, there could be hundreds of unexpected cases of Guillain-Barre. Figures from the WHO have indicated that Brazil, Colombia, El Salvador, Surinam together with Venezuela had reported greater than before numbers of cases in recent weeks of the syndrome. Director of the Wellcome Trust, Dr Jeremy Farrar, had said that the study provided the most compelling evidence to date of a causative connection between Zika and Guillain-Barre syndrome.

Monday, 15 February 2016

Colombia Links Zika to Rare Nerve Disorder Deaths

Zika

Zika Virus – Developed Rare Nerve Disorder


Columbia has informed that three people died after getting affected with the Zika virus and developed rare nerve disorder. Alejandro Gaviria, Health Minister had stated that there was a `causal link between Zika, the Guillain-Barre disorders and the three deaths’. The mosquito-borne disease, Zika, has been connected to cases of babies born in Brazil with underdeveloped brains - microcephaly.Head of Colombia’s National Health Institute, Martha Lucia Ospina had confirmed and attributed three deaths to Zika.

She stated that `in this case, the three deaths were led by Guillain-Barre syndrome’. Guillain-Barre is considered a rare disorder wherein the immune system of the body attacks part of the nervous system and is normally deadly. Cases of the syndrome wherein the immune system attacks the nervous system causes weakness and at times paralysis has increased in tandem due to the Zika outbreak.

This has given rise to suspicions that it is a complication of the mild tropical fever. Ms Ospina also mentioned that another six deaths were investigated for probable connection to Zika. She also informed that the other cases of death connected to Zika would arise and the world is recognising that Zika could be deadly.

Complications – Respiratory Failure


The standard rate does not seem to be very high though it could be deadly. Mr Gaviria had stated that one of the fatalities had taken place in San Andres and the other two in Turbo in Antioquia department. Prof Jonathan Ball, UK virologist of the University of Nottingham had informed BBC that they had been saying Zika had been linked with Guillain-Barre and one of the complications of that could be respiratory failure.

However, it is yet probably a very rare incident. Though Zika tends to cause mild, flu-like symptoms, it has been associated to thousands of suspected birth defects. But it has still not been proved that Zika tends to cause either microcephaly or Guillain-Barre. The foremost method of infection is through mosquito bites though the scientists in Brazil state that tests on two patients discovered Zika could be found in other body fluids. Paulo Gadelha, Head of Brazil’s Fiocruz Institute, which is part of the Ministry of Health, commented that the presence of the active Zika virus has been traced in saliva and urine. However that does not mean that there is a capacity for transmission through saliva and urine.

Public Health Emergency Over Zika


Traces of genetic material of Zikahave been identified in saliva and urine during the outbreak in French Polynesia in 2013, but the authorities in Brazil state that this is the first time `active’ virus had been discovered.

According to Oswaldo Crus also from Fiocruz stated that it means that the virus is active with the capability of infecting a cell which is completely different and means that the virus is functional. Brazil had 4,783 suspected cases of babies born with small brains though only 404 had been confirmed, while 709 had been rejected and 3,670 are still being inspected.

Updated information states that avoiding mosquitoes seems the best way in preventing infection but advises men returning from affected countries to refrain from sexual activity especially during the duration of the pregnancy. The governor of Puerto Rico, in the meanwhile has declared a public health emergency over Zika. The US territory has confirmed 22 cases.