Showing posts with label health. Show all posts
Showing posts with label health. Show all posts

Thursday, 1 February 2018

Research Reveals Importance of Whooping Cough, Flu Vaccines for Pregnant Women

flu

Maternal Immunisation

Australia had faced the worst flu time of year on record in 2017 wherein infants, together with children and elderly had been most vulnerable to influenza virus. As per Dr Annette Regan, an award winning research tends to target maternal child health, its seriousness for pregnant women in getting the flu vaccine and pertussis – whooping cough, vaccine to safeguard themselves together with their unborn children from potentially fatal illnesses which is a practise called `maternal immunisation’.

The vaccine for flu and whooping cough are rendered free of cost for pregnant women. The health effect of influenza and whooping cough very often has been underestimated though both the viruses could be the cause of devastating complication or also death in the susceptible population. Providing vaccine to pregnant women against the viruses helps in protecting the mother as well as her unborn child.

Antibodies tend to develop in response to the vaccine which helps in protecting the mother from infection and who in turn will transfer these antibodies to her child through her placenta. This helps in protecting the enfant till the child is adequately old to be immunised. This defence has been defined as the `ultimate birthday gift’, from a mother to her child.

Risk of Serious Complication

Regan commented that when the immune system of pregnant women tends to get somewhat depressed, and if they get an infection it could be much more severe and there is every possibility of influencing the unborn child. He further added that pregnant women together with their infants tend to be a high risk of serious complications from respiratory infections such as influenza.

It is for this purpose, influenza and pertussis vaccines have been suggested presently at the time of pregnancy. Influenza vaccines could be administered at any stage during pregnancy and pertussis vaccine is given between 28 and 32 weeks of pregnancy. The vaccine tends to protect the mother against the infection as well as prevent serious infection to their infants during their initial first month of life.

Babies can be prevented from being fatally ill from maternal vaccination. Riley Hughes a Perth-born baby is considered to be one of the most prominent victims of whooping cough.

At three weeks of age, in 2015, Riley had suffered from what seemed to be a cold though was suffering from whooping cough. He had been instantly hospitalised at Princess Margaret Hospital though had developed pneumonia and inspite of being treated, had a tragic death at four weeks of age.

Immunisation Foundation of Australia

The Western Australian State Government had launched a program for pregnant women, two days later after his death, to access free pertussis booster shots in their third trimester of pregnancy. Catherine and Greg Hughes, the parents of Riley, had established the Immunisation Foundation of Australia and campaign and advocate for the importance of vaccinefor pregnant women as well as the National Immunisation Program Schedule for children and infants.

In spite of the availability of free flu as well as whooping cough vaccine for pregnant women and the documented safety of this vaccine, the main hurdle to maternal vaccination was lack of guidance from treating healthcare professionals. Regan stated that `by far the biggest factor influencing whether women will get vaccinated during pregnancy or not, is whether her healthcare provider recommends it to her.

Almost 80 percent state that they would be vaccinated if their provider had suggested it to them. Moreover there is a perception that vaccination does not seem essential since women are not usually aware of the austerity of these diseases. Women also mentioned concern with regards to safety of the vaccine to their baby and probable side effects, as a reason why they opted not to be vaccinated.
Study – National Attention
Vaccines can be an apprehensive topic among members of the community who are of the belief that vaccinations could cause health issues or developmental differences, like Autism Spectrum Disorder in infants or children. No reliable studies are available to support that vaccinations could cause health issues or developmental differences in infants and young children. The vaccine is considered to be protective both to the mother and the health of the baby according to Regan’s research validates. Regan had also stated that there are some anti-vaccine groups who are of the belief that vaccination at the time of pregnancy is not safe and could be linked with birth defects such as microcephaly which is not true. There have been several studies indicating that influenza and pertussis vaccines are safe to mothers as well as their infants. PhD study of Regan – Seasonal Trivalent Influenza Vaccination During Pregnancy and the Incidence of Stillbirth: Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Study that linked data sources from 60,000 births in Western Australia between 2012 and 2013 portrayed pregnant women having flu vaccine faced half the risk of stillbirth in comparison to unvaccinated women. The study brought about a national attention resulting in an increase in maternal immunisation.
Regan – Aileen Plant Memorial Prize
She further stated that the results received plenty of media attention and had been publicized via social media. Most of the women in parenting blogs such as Mama Mia and on the Light for Riley page had commented saying that they had booked their influenza vaccine since they had heard of the study. Considering that less than two-thirds of women receive an influenza vaccine every year, encouraging more women to get vaccinated seems to be fantastic result. Regan had been awarded the esteemed Aileen Plant Memorial Prize in Infectious DiseaseEpidemiology in 2017 for her PhD research. Till 2015 when the death of Riley Hughes had shown a substance for maternal vaccinations, pregnant women had not received flu or whooping cough vaccine. There was restricted data on how these vaccinations influenced the health of the children in the long term. Regan is presently researching in this area in partnership with a Canadian colleague, Associate Professor Deshayne Fell, University of Ottawa. She has commented that though maternal vaccination is not a new concept by any means, till 2015 few pregnant women had received these vaccines. As a consequence, little is known regarding the long-term health effects on children.

Friday, 26 January 2018

Wellness For Beginners: Health Strategies That Promote Success

If you've recently realized that your thought processes and behavioral proclivities are not conducive to mental and physical health, you may be ready to make the changes necessary to facilitate wellness. If so, this is the quick reference guide for you. Read on to learn about several wellness strategies you can utilize to get on track to amazing health:

1. Focus On Your Food. 

If you want wellness to be your primary focus for the new year, be sure to place primacy on optimizing your eating habits. By focusing on your food, you'll be able to avoid big mistakes that detract from your level of vitality and physical appearance. Note that the majority of Americans currently consume a substandard diet that is commonly referred to as the Standard American Diet (SAD). This diet contains a wide range of chemical-laden processed foods while failing to provide people with adequate amounts of key vitamins, minerals, and nutrients. With these realities in mind, make sure that you are not eating in a conventional manner. Instead, make a point to pile your plate high with fresh fruits and vegetables every chance you get.

If you find it difficult or awkward to eat in a healthy manner when you are in social settings, note that you have several options that will help you facilitate permanent, positive change. One is changing your social network so you're consistently dining with individuals who love healthy eating. Note that you can use a digital resource such as Meetupdotcom to find healthy Meetup groups in your local area. Also note that the process of learning how to love eating healthy food can transpire in relative isolation. If you don't feel comfortable discussing your poor eating habits with others or connecting with people in contexts that are food-centered, you can begin to change your food behaviors from the privacy of your apartment or home. There are now millions and millions of delicious, nutritious recipes that you can access via internet for the purpose of consistently consuming the types of foods that will help you look and feel your best.

Note that while strategies such as enhancing your fruit and vegetable intake will help you attain more nutrients, even healthy eaters find that there are periodically nutritional holes in their diets. As such, you may want to consider the value of purchasing multivitamins. This way, you won't have to worry about coming up short in terms of things like folate, iron, calcium, manganese, etc. Note that you can get your vitamins from Health365.com.au. Visit the website now to learn more about the company and all of the vitamins they have to offer.

2. Start Meditating. 

In addition to optimizing your eating habits, make sure that you start meditating regularly. This technique will help you gain conscious awareness of and control over your thought processes. Note that many people are in the habit of consistently allowing negative, self-defeating thoughts to flow through their brains throughout the day. Also note that mass media consistently produces television ads, films, and music which contain ideas, images, and ideological perspectives that may not parallel your personal value system. If you are intentionally or unintentionally exposing yourself to these mediums, you may find that your thought life is not conducive to mental health and general well-being. Yet by developing a strong, regular meditation practice, you can begin to consciously, continually structure and redirect your thoughts so that your cognitive processes leads to positive thinking and productive living.

3. Exercise Consistently. 

One final strategy individuals can implement to make wellness their reality is consistent exercise. While many people know that exercise plays a key role in facilitating holistic health, factors such as habituation, fear, and external environment preclude them from making physical activity a central component of their lifestyle. Don't let this happen to you. Instead, start exercising consistently so you can attain great wellness benefits such as clearer thinking, a slimmer physique, more energy, and amazing skin. Yoga, pilates, step aerobics, and cycling are just four of numerous exercises you could engage in to take your level of health to an all-time high.

Conclusion

If you're excited about the idea of optimizing your mental and physical well-being yet don't know how to make it happen, don't worry. Instead, use the information found in this quick reference guide to get and remain on the highway to health!

Sunday, 7 January 2018

'Y’ a Protein Unicorn Might Matter in Glaucoma

'Y’ a Protein Unicorn

First Discovery – Encoded By Gene – Protein Linked with Glaucoma

Recent discovery has been done on Y-shape towards the base of myoclin linking together four popular proteins forms known as olfactomedins or propellers in segments of four. To get some insight on myocilin is essential in definite types of hereditary glaucoma.

Raquel Lieberman, the artist behind this interpretation is said to be the main investigator of the group which has set a Y-shaped structure, considered to be the first ever discovery which had been encoded by a gene and not built from protein component parts. This amazing discovery had been done by researcher regarding protein linked with glaucoma which for more than two years had gone through a tough lab test.

A new research paper had been published regarding the same and what was observed had been certified. It was a Y-shape which had made it peculiarly significant to science and probably to medicine, especially in the treatment of certain kind of blindness.

Raquel Lieberman leading the study had commented that a protein of this kind had not been reported earlier and there seems to be very few Y-shapes in protein at all. Lieberman is a structural biologist at the Georgia Institute of Technology and expert on myocilin that is a protein which at times is associated in a form of hereditary glaucoma.

Common Cause of Blindness Glaucoma 


Universally the second most common cause of blindness is glaucoma and hereditary glaucoma is said to be one type of the ailment. Major cause of hereditary glaucoma is genetic mutation in myocilin that tends to strike especially at a tender age particularly in childhood. It is said that there are other forms in protein that tend to look same to the Y, although with significant variances.

Lieberman had commented that the antibodies appear somewhat like this though in antibodies, separate proteins, which are the various genes of the product that fit together making it a type of Y-shape. This Y is encoded by an individual gene sequence which makes it completely exclusive. Besides being apparent unicorn of protein structure, it seems to be the essential binding component of myocilin.

The Y ties along with major components in nailing down the overall form of myocilin over turning the earlier conception regarding the appearance of protein. However the Y has not been associated in particular in glaucoma, its presence could change the way the researchers would comprehend myocilin and how it tends to function in the eye. It make fibrils when mycolin inclines to go wrong or misfolds, damaging tissue known as trabecular meshwork which have a tendency to generally permit the fluid in the eye to drain and relieve the pressure within.

 

Myocilin Common in Body


Lieberman, an associate professor in Georgia Tech’s School of chemistry and Biochemistry, had commented that if one destroys the cells responsible for draining the fluid, it would clog and the pressure within the eye would increase.

Moreover that pressure could destroy areas of the retina or optic nerve which would cause irreversible partial or complete blindness. In spite of the fact that myocilin tends to be common in several areas of our body, its usual healthy function in the eye and what functions the protein tends to have in the body seems to be yet a mystery.

Lieberman had further commented that he thinks that if they were aware of what this protein could be doing in the trabecular meshwork then they would comprehend more regarding glaucoma in general. This study has enabled them to get more insight with regards to myocilin. The results had been published by Lieberman on October 19, 2017, in the journal Structure.

The research had been financed by the National Eye Institute together with the National Institute of General Medical Science, both at the National Institutes of Health by the National Science Foundation as well as by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science.

Stingy Abnormal Proteins 


The purpose of the study so far had been on area of myocilin which tends to be the main issue by way of hereditary glaucoma, which is considered to be protein structure known as the olfactomedin domain. This had been extensively researched by Lieberman. It appeared like a protein propeller having five blades surrounding a hole towards its centre.

Lieberman had also stated that when a myocilin propeller tends to misfolds, it unravels forming amyloid fibrils – stingy abnormal proteins. This damaged the cells which maintain the trabecular network. Till then their work had led them to assume that the propellers floated around exclusively as liberated units and not bound together in groups.

 He further added that they were aware that in solutions, those olfactomedins had been just monomers. They did not make much of a higher order with the exception that when they had untied into amyloid fibres, they stuck together and blocked the flow of fluid.

 The Y tends to change the image and anchors the propellers in cluster of four. Two of the propellers – olfactomedin domains, each seem to be linked probably to the tip of the Y’s branches possibly by amino acid strings.

Super Sticky


The overall myocilin with the Y tends to appear like fur pinwheels on strings linked to a slingshot. Additional new discoveries – The Y tends to be sticky like glue and seems to be bothersome while handling in the lab. He informed that it was sticking to the plastic, to the glass as well as to the membrane, to beads and is super sticky. This could serve a biological function. The Y could perhaps fasten the propellers to surface though it is not known.

Lieberman is of the opinion that the main function would be to pair and separate out these olfactomedin domains. Mutations in the Y are not knowingly linked with glaucoma. Lieberman has stated that when it mutates, it tends to misfold though not in a manner which would cause cell death.

However in usual role the Y could promote the speed of misfolding of the propeller protein which is associated with hereditary glaucoma. When the misfolded proteins tends to come in contact with good proteins it is said that the misfolded one make the ones which are good to misfold also.

Monday, 1 January 2018

Effectiveness of Commercial and Homemade Washing Agents in Removing Pesticide Residues on and in Apples

Getting Pesticides Off Apples – Baking Soda

A new concept has been discovered by researchers at the University of Massachusetts who have identified an improved method of getting pesticides off the apples by utilising baking soda. To Wash Apple and get rid of the pesticides with baking soda, it was determined that researchers utilised two kinds of pesticides, the fungicide thiabendazole and the insecticide phosmet.

To conduct the research, the apples had been washed utilising three methods namely tap water, a solution of baking soda and water and a commercial solution of bleach approved for usage by the Environmental Protection Agency. The results of Wash Apple method had been reported in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry of American Chemical Society. The results found the baking soda solution to be the best choice.

After a period of 12 minutes, 80% of thiabendazole had been eliminated while 96% of the phosmet had been removed after 15 minutes. Thiabendazole was considered to be complex to Wash Apple since it had the potential to penetrate much more deeply in the skin of the apple according to the study. Moreover, researchers also observed that peeling the apples could also prove effective in the removal of any pesticide though the key nutrients would be lost with the skin. Hence the ingredient from the pantry proved to be the appropriate option.

Usefulness of Commercial Washing Agent

The study discovered the usefulness of commercial washing agent for the elimination of pesticides residues from apples. Methods that were utilised in determining the effectiveness of various washing agents to Wash Apple of the pesticide residues was surface-enhanced Raman scattering –SERS mapping and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry – LC-MS/MS.

The most effective for Wash Apple method was the surface pesticide residues which were done by sodium bicarbonate (baking soda, NaHCO3) solution in comparison to tap water or Clorox bleach. Utilising 10 mg/mL NaHCO3 of washing solution, within duration of around 12 and 15 minute respectively, thiabendazole or phosmet surface residues was totally eliminated.

Thereafter a 24 h exposure to these pesticides had been applied at a concentration of 125 ng/cm2. Results of LC-MS/MS portrayed that 20% of applied thiabendazole and 4.4% of applied phosmet had infiltrated in the apples after the exposure of 24 h.

The systemic pesticide – thiabendazole infiltrated 4-fold deeper in the apple peel than phosmet which is a non-systemic pesticide leading to more thiabendazole residues within the apple that was unable to wash away, utilising NaHCO3 washing solution.

Peeling Effective – Bioactive Composites Lost

 

From the research it has been observed that the standard postharvest Wash Apple method utilising Clorox bleach solution for a period of 2 minutes does not seem to be effective in eliminating totally the pesticide from the surface of the apples. The NaHCO3 method tends to be more effective in removing surface pesticides residues from the apples.

 Thiabendazole and phosmet, that tends to support the physical removal force of washing, could degrade in the presence of NaHCO3. In general, the effectiveness of eliminating all pesticide residues reduced as the pesticides infiltrated deeper in the apple.

To Wash Apple on daily application with NaNCO3 solution could decrease pesticides mostly from the surface and peeling could be much more effective in removing the infiltrated pesticides, though the bioactive composites would be lost in the peels.

Monday, 11 December 2017

Height And Weight Evolved At Different Speeds In The Bodies Of Our Ancestors

Bones

Hominin Bodies Developed in `Pulse & Stasis’ Variation

 
An extensive latest research of fossils covering over four million years suggests that physique and body mass advanced at different speeds at the time of evolution of hominins, the ancestral heredity of which Homo sapiens alone still prevails.

As published in the journal Royal Society: Open Science, the research portrayed that instead of progressively growing in size, hominin bodies developed in `pulse and stasis’ variation with some linages that seemed to be shrinking. Discoveries have come from the largest research of hominin body sizes comprising of 311 specimens that date back from earliest upright species of 4.4m years from the modern humans and followed the last ice age.

Though the researchers have defined the physical evolution of assorted hominin species as `long and winding road having several branches and dead ends,’ they have informed that broad patterns in the data recommends bursts of growth at crucial stages together with plateaus with little alteration for several millennia.

The scientist had been amazed to discover `decoupling’ of bulk and stature of about one and a half million years back when hominin grew about 10cm taller though could not consistently gain any weight for a further million years having an average increase of 10-15kgs taking place at about 500,000 years back.
 

Increase in Stature – Increase Slimmer Structure

 
The height and weight in hominin species, before the event seemed to evolve `in concert’ according to the authors of the first study to jointly analyse the aspects equally of body size over millions of years.

Lead author Dr Manuel Will from Cambridge’s Department of Archaeology and Research Colleague at Gonville & Caius College had mentioned that an increase exclusively in stature could have increased a slimmer structure with long legs and narrow hips and shoulder. This could have been a variation to new environments and endurance hunting as early Homo species who had left the forests and progressed to more arid African savannahs.

He further added that the higher surface-to-volume ratio of tall, slender body would be beneficial when stalking animals for hours in dry heat since larger skin area tends to increase the capacity for evaporation of sweat. Besides this he also added that the later addition of body mass tends to coincide with the increasing migrations to higher latitudes wherein a bulkier body would be suited better for thermoregulation in colder Eurasian climates.
 

Body Size Highly Variable

 
But Dr Will points out that though these seem valid theories, vast openings in the fossil record endure to cover the complete truth. Dr Will together with his colleagues in fact had to evaluate body sizes often from highly fragmented remains and in some instances, from only a single toe bone.

From the study it was observed that the body size was highly variable at the time of the earlier hominin history having a range of various shaped species, from broad, gorilla-like Paranthropus to the more gracile Australopithecus afarensis.

 The hominin from four million years back had weighed around an average of 25kg and stood at 125-139cm. Dr Will and his colleagues state that evolutionary pressures which could have made their contribution, comprise of `cladogenesis’ the splitting of a lineage with one line, in this instance, the smaller-bodied one seemed to be extinct, probably as a consequence of inter-species competition.

Thursday, 26 October 2017

Daydreaming is Good. It Means You’re Smart

Daydreaming is Good. It Means You’re Smart
Image Credit: Georgia Institute of Technology
If you are ‘daydreaming’ then you are ‘smart’

Finally, it’s true you aren’t an idiot. A new study has proven that daydreaming isn’t a bad thing at all rather it suggests that the person is incredible smart and creative. A number of people all around the world are caught daydreaming at their desk, during work, walking around the park, in a meeting, eating, travelling and almost any time. This habit is seen as a bad attention span or inattentiveness or laziness on the part of the person and sometimes it even comes with social stigma. However scientists from the Georgia Institute of Technology has stated that mere reason some people daydream is that their efficient brain has so much brain capacity that it can’t stop their mind from wandering off.

The people behind this awesome discovery


This discovery has been made by Eric Schumacher, associate psychology professor from Georgia Tech, and his team of students and colleagues. They had worked hard to measure the brain patterns of more than 100 people using the MRI machine. While lying down in the MRI machine participants were simply asked to focus their brain on a stationary fixation point for just five minutes. Next the team of researchers used the collected data from the participants in order to identify which of the brain parts worked together in this experiment.

The lead co-author of this research Christine Godwin had clarified that analyzing the correlated brain regions they were able to see which brain areas were utilized during the awake and resting state. During the research scientists found that these brain patterns also brought an astonishing insight into the view. These brain patterns also showed varying cognitive abilities in different participants which was a surprise for everyone.

 

Finding the new things about DayDreaming


At first researchers analyzed the data to understand how brains works in unison during ‘resting’ state. Then this data was used to compare the tests in which participants intellectual and creative ability was measured. Apart from the analysis of the collected data researchers also gave a questionnaire to the participants which mainly focused on how much their mind usually wandered in daily life. After carefully going through all the data researchers found that participants who reported frequent dray dreaming instances usually score higher on the intellectual and creative ability while those with fewer day dreaming instances happened to showcases lesser intellectual and creative ability.

Schumacher has stated that usually people saw the daydreaming habit as a really bad thing which isn’t the case anymore. This research shows that some of the people have highly efficient brain which makes it difficult of the person to pay attention even if they want to and thus their mind goes wandering around. A trick can help in finding whether your brain is highly efficient or not. If any person tend to zone in and out of the conversation or tasks but they have the ability get back to it without missing any important point or steps then such person has a efficient brain.

Monday, 25 September 2017

One Vaccine Injection Could Carry Many Doses

Library of Tiny/Encased Vaccine Particles

 
An innovative 3-D fabrication system has been designed by the MIT engineers that tend to generate a novel kind of drug-carrying particle enabling various doses of a drug or vaccines to be provided over an extended time period with only an injection.

 The innovative micro particles are said to be made of biocompatible, FDA approved polymer that can be considered to degrade at specific times, spilling out the contents of the `cup’. Robert Langer, the David H Koch Institute Professor at MIT had commented that they are excited regarding this work since for the first time they can create a library of tiny, encased vaccines particles wherein each are programmed to release at an accurate, predictable time in order that individuals could probably receive a single injection which in effect would tend to have several boosters that are built in it already.

This could have a substantial influence on the victims everywhere particularly in the developing world where the person’s compliance seems to be at the lowest. A research scientist at MIT’s Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Ana Jaklenec and Langer are the senior authors of the paper which appeared online in Science on Sept 14.
 

Several Doses of Vaccines/One Injection

 
The lead authors of the paper are postdoc Kevin McHugh and earlier postdoc Thanh D. Nguyen presently an assistant professor of mechanical engineering at the University of Connecticut. As part of a project subsidized by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Langer’s lab started working on the innovative drug delivery particles that was looking for means of delivering several doses of vaccines over specified period to time with only one injection.

This would enable babies in developing nations who may not see a doctor often to get one injection after birth which would deliver all of the vaccines they would need during the first one or two years of life. Langer had earlier developed polymer particles with drugs implanted all over the particle enabling them to be gradually released over a period of time. But the researchers needed to come up with a way to deliver short burst of a drug at particular intervals, for the project to mimic the manner in which a series of vaccines could be administered.
 

PLGA – Biocompatible Polymer

 
In order to accomplish their goal on drug or vaccines, they started to cultivate a sealable polymer cup made from PLGA that is a biocompatible polymer which had been already approved for usage in medical devices like the implants, sutures as well as prosthetic devices.

It is said that PLGA could also be intended in degrading at various rates enabling for fabrication of numerous particles which tend to release their contents at various times. Conservative 3-D printing techniques is said to incompatible for the material as well as the dimension which the researchers needed and hence they had to create a new method of fabricating the cups gaining inspiration from computer chip manufacturing.

They developed silicon molds for the cups as well as the lids utilising the photolithography. Huge selections of around 2,000 molds are placed on a glass slide wherein these are utilised in shaping the PLGA cups (cups with edge lengths of some hundred microns) and lids. The researchers had engaged a custom-built, automated dispensing method of filling each cup and the system was heated slightly till the cup and lid fused together, sealing the drug within, when the selection of polymer cups had been shaped.
 

StampED Assembly of Polymer Layers

 
Jaklenec had stated that every layer is fabricated at first on its own and thereafter assembled together. Part of the novelty is really in how they align and seal the layers. By doing so they developed a new system which could make structures that current 3-D printing methods are unable to do. The latest system is known as SEAL – StampED Assembly of polymer Layers, and can be utilised with any thermoplastic material enabling fabrication of microstructures with complex geometries that tend to have broad application comprising of injectable pulsatile drug delivery, pH sensors together with 3-D microfluidic devices.

An assistant professor of mechanical engineering and biomedical engineering at Vanderbilt University, Leon Bellan stated that the approach tends to provide an impressive amount of control in constructing 3-D micro particles. Bellan who had not been involved in the study stated that it seems to be a new take on 3-D printing procedure as well as an elegant solution in building macroscopic 3-D structures out of material which are relevant for biomedical application.

The molecular weight of the PLGA polymer together with the backbone structure of the polymer molecule tends to regulate how quick the particles could degrade after the vaccines. The rate of degradation determines when the drug would be released and on injecting several particles which degrade at varied rates, the researcher could create a strong burst of drug or vaccines at predetermined time point.
 

Vaccines in One Shot

 
McHugh had stated that in the developing world that could be the variance between not getting vaccinated and receiving all of the vaccines in one shot. The researchers showed that in mice, particle release in sharp bursts without previous leakage was at 9, 20 and 41 days after the injection. Thereafter they examined particles that were filled with ovalbumin, which is a protein that is found in egg whites and is generally utilised to experimentally motivate an immune response.

Utilising a mixture of particles which tend to release ovalbumin at 9 and 41 day after injection they discovered that a particular injection of these particles had the capabilities of inducing a strong immune response which was equivalent to that triggered by two conservative injections with twice the dose. Besides this, the researchers also designed particles which could degrade as well as release hundreds of days after the injection.

 The researcher state that one experiment of developing long-term vaccine based on these particles is of ensuring that the encapsulated drug or vaccines tends to be stable at body temperature for a long time before being released. They now intend to test these delivery particles with various drugs comprising of prevailing vaccines like inactivated polio vaccine together with fresh vaccines which are in the development stage. Moreover they are also working on plans of stabilizing the vaccines.

The researchers have also designed particles that can degrade and release hundreds of days after injection. One challenge to developing long-term vaccines based on such particles, the researchers say, is making sure that the encapsulated drug or vaccine remains stable at body temperature for a long period before being released. They are now testing these delivery particles with a variety of drugs, including existing vaccines, such as inactivated polio vaccine, and new vaccines still in development. They are also working on strategies to stabilize the vaccines.

“The SEAL technique could provide a new platform that can create nearly any tiny, fillable object with nearly any material, which could provide unprecedented opportunities in manufacturing in medicine and other areas,” Langer says. These particles could also be useful for delivering drugs that have to be given on a regular basis, such as allergy shots, to minimize the number of injections.

Other authors on the paper are Allison Linehan, David Yang, Adam Behrens, Sviatlana Rose, Zachary Tochka, Stephanie Tzeng, James Norman, Aaron Anselmo, Xian Xu, Stephanie Tomasic, Matthew Taylor, Jennifer Lu, and Rohiverth Guarecuco.

Friday, 22 September 2017

As 'Flesh-Eating' Leishmania Come Closer, a Vaccine Against Them Does, Too

Leishmania – Second-Deadliest Parasite in the World

 
Parasites which affect the skin and can mutilate the face; tend to seriously damage the internal organs, have been coming nearer to the southern edges of the United States. Though no vaccines are available against Leishmania, researchers have almost come close in bringing about a change.

 An innovative experimental vaccine complete with proprietary biological particles established at the Georgia Institute of Technology tends to have immunized laboratory mice which had been genetically changed to imitate the human immune system. As per a new research, the vaccine is said to exploit a weakness which the tricky chemical mask in Leishmania tends to generally hide from the disease fighting cells of the victim to activate a forceful immune response against the parasite.

According to the World Health Organization, Leishmania is said to be the second-deadliest parasite in the world surpassed only by malaria. There are around 30 strains of Leishmania. They are said to be transmitted mostly through the bit of a phlebotomine sand fly that tends to feed on the blood. The global warming has been expanding the potential habitat of the insect towards the north of Latin America. The epidemic regions nearest to the United States of leishmaniasis, the disease affected by the parasite has come now almost to 300 miles of the border.
 

Leishmania –Different Symptoms

 
With those who contract Leishmania, the parasite is said to cultivate leishmaniasis and the disease tends to have different symptoms or probably also shows no outwards indication of the disease. However when it tends to break out, it could cause grave skin boils as well as some types of severely eat away at the nose and lips and also removal of some parts of them. If another type of the parasite tends to get into the bloodstream it could also injure the liver as well as the spleen in the most dangerous way of the disease known as the visceral leishmaniasis which is also called black fever.

A professor in the parasitology department of the Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais in Brazil and also one of the lead researchers on the new experimental vaccine, Alexandre Marques had commented that `if it is not treated within 20 to 40 days, visceral leishmaniasis often tends to kill the victim’. However conventional treatment generally effective could leave small numbers of the parasite that could lead to relapse in the patient or act as a carrier in a likewise manner as in the case of malaria. A vaccine would prove to be helpful in preventing epidemics.

Leishmania are said to be single-cell organisms which are the size of large bacteria that have been a menace in around 90 countries in South America, the Middle East, Africa and Asia together with southern Europe. Researchers have been working to discover a vaccine against them and identical parasites with much success for years.

 M. G. Finn leading the work on the new vaccine had commented that in comparison to viruses and bacteria, there seems to be much more complex organisms and more tough to crack. Finn is said to be a professor in Georgia Tech’s School of Biological Sciences and in the School of Chemistry and Biochemistry which he also heads.

The innovative vaccine leverages intimate knowledge which the team of Marques had obtain living as well as working on the edge of leishmaniasis epidemics areas. Finn had informed that one of the students of Marques, Alex had gathered the sand flies and then extracted the parasites in the lab to do complex mass spectrometry together with the other tests to research the molecular makeup in impressive detail. The team had discovered minute details on the exterior surface of Leishmania which tends to make it susceptible to human immune reaction.
 

New Vaccine Employs Fake Virus

 
The prospective of the new vaccine, designed at Georgia Tech tends to employ a fake virus as an inducement to draw major immune systems forces to these faults to attack them. The replica virus or virus-like particles does not seem to be infectious and the body terminates it after usage. Several variations of such particles in recent years had been developed at the lab of Finn together with other products comprising of the same have already been through phase II human clinical trials.

The results of their vaccination development as well as testing had been published by Marques and Finn on September 13, 2017 in the journal ACS Central Science. It is said that the research had been financed by the National Institutes of Health, Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta as well as Brazil’s National council for Scientific and Technological Development. The following queries and answers would be beneficial in comprehending how the vaccine could influence the chemical facade of Leishmania:

What is so tricky regarding chemical fa├žade of Leishmania?

The parasites are said to cover themselves in carbohydrates that seem like food and also tend to cover the other cells in the body. To the body, the Leishmania cells seem inoffensive and the immune system has a tendency to leave them alone.

What is the crack in the facade? 

Some of these carbohydrates tend to truly generate a mild human immune response which is not adequately strong to actually combat Leishmaniasis. However it gave Marques and Finn’s vaccine some headway. It is fortunate that humans as well as some other primates tend to have this precise immune reaction, since the other mammals do not and hence this vaccine would not work on them. To test the new vaccine, the laboratory mice had to be genetically changed to make their immune system react to the carbohydrates the way it tends to do for humans.

How does the fake virus tend to function? 

Finn had informed that they used the virus-like particles to enhance a key carbohydrate on the surface of Leishmania clearly to the body. This tends to persuade its immune system in reacting strongly against it like a foreign structure.

The immune system tends to go after the false virus like guard dogs after an intruder. The researchers had attacked the odd carbohydrate to the false virus which made the immune system recognize that carbohydrate as a severe risk. Immune cells then hunt it down and in this process tend to eliminate the parasite which creates it.

Saturday, 16 September 2017

Pen Identifies Cancer in 10 Seconds

Pen

The MasSpec Pen – Device of Identifying Cancerous Tissue

As per scientist at the University of Texas, a handheld device has the potential of identifying cancerous tissue in a matter of 10 seconds. It is said that it could enable surgery in removing a tumour much quicker, safer with accuracy. It is likely that it would save on any anguish of leaving traces of cancer behind. The experiments published in Science Translational Medicine have recommended that the technology tends to be 96% precise.

 The MasSpec Pen is said to take the benefit of the exclusive metabolism of cancer cells. Their frantic drive to develop and spread would mean that their internal chemistry could be different to that of healthy tissue. It operates when the pen is touched to a suspected cancer area and then releases a tiny droplet of water. The chemicals within the living cells is said to transfer into the droplet wherein it is then sucked back up to the pen for analysis.

The pen is said to be plugged in a mass spectrometer which is a bit of a kit that has the capability of measuring the mass of thousands of chemicals each second. It is said to create chemical fingerprint which informs doctors if they are looking at healthy tissue or cancer. 
 

Challenge – Border Between Cancer & Common Tissue

 
Surgeons are faced with the challenge of locating the border between the cancer and common tissue. It tends to be clear in some tumours though in case of others, the boundary seems to be unclear between healthy and diseased tissue. This device could be helpful to doctors in ensuring that no trace of the cancer is left behind in the patient.

The removal of too little tissue and any trace of cancerous cells could develop into another tumour. However taking too much could cause damage, especially in cases of organs like the brain. Assistant professor of chemistry, Livia Eberlin, at the University of Texas, Austin, had informed BBC that `what’s exciting about this technology is how clearly it meets a clinical need. The tool is sophisticated and simple and can be in the hands of surgeons in a short time’. As part of the research, the technology had been verified on 253 samples and the intention is to continue verifying in order to refine the device before conducting tests during operation next year.
 

Modern Endeavour of Improving Precision of Surgery

 

The pen presently is said to examine a patch of tissue 1.5mm across though the researchers have developed pens already which seems to be more advanced and are capable of looking at improved area of tissue just 0.6mm across. The mass spectrometer is said to be costly and large though the pen is quite economical. The MasSpec Pen is considered to be the modern endeavour of improving the precision of surgery.

A team at Imperial College London is said to have created a knife which tends to smell the tissue it cuts in order to define whether it is eliminating cancer. Another team at Harvard have been utilising lasers in analysing how much of a brain cancer can be removed. From Cancer Research UK, Dr Aine McCarthy had stated that `exciting research such as this tends to have the possibility of speeding up on how doctors can determine if a tumour could be cancerous or not and be aware of its characteristics.

Saturday, 1 July 2017

Grape-Based Compounds Kill Colon Cancer Stem Cells in Mice


Resveratrol – Grape Seed Extract – Treatment of Colon Cancer


As per a team of researchers, compounds from grapes could destroy Colon Cancer stem cells in a petri dish as well as in mice. Resveratrol, the compound that is found in grape skins as well as seed could ultimately also lead to treatments of supporting in the prevention of colon cancer according to Jairam K.P. Vanamala, associate professor of food sciences, Pen State.

The second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the U.S. is colorectal cancer as per The American Cancer Society. Vanamala, who is a faculty member at the Penn State Hershey Cancer Institute, had commented that the combination of resveratrol together with grape seed extract is said to be very effective in destroying colon cancer cells and what is learnt is that the combination of these compounds is not toxic to healthy cells.

The researchers reporting their discoveries in a recent issue of BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine recommended that the discoveries tend to make way for clinical testing of compounds on the colon cancer of human. This is said to be the second most common cancer among women and the third in men. If it tends to be successful, the compounds could be utilised in a pill in assisting in the prevention of colon cancer as well as reduce the relapse of the ailment in colon cancer survivors.

Shotgun Approach to Cancer Prevention


Vanamala had commented that they are mainlyconcerned in aiming stem cell since as per cancer stem-cell theory, cancerous tumours are driven by cancer stem cells which are capable of self-renewal, cellular differentiation and also maintain their stem cell-like appearances even after invasion and metastasis.

According to researchers, if taken in low doses, separately, resveratrol together with grape seed extract does not seem to be as effective against cancer stem-cell suppression when they are combined together.According to Vanamala, the combined effect of grape seed extract together with resveratrol could provide clues to the reasoning of why cultures with plant-based diet seems to have lower colon cancer rates.
These diets may naturally be offering a shotgun approach to cancer prevention on utilising an extensive variety of valuable compounds to aim on numerous pathways which cancer stem cells utilise to live.

Advantageous in Promoting Bacterial Diversity


Vanamala further added that this also links well with a plant-based diet which is structured in order that the person gets a bit of diverse categories of plants, of various parts of the plant with different colours of the plant.

 According to Vanamal this could be advantageous not only in promoting bacterial diversity but also in averting chronic diseases together with eradicating the colon cancer stem cells. If the human trials tend to be successful, the compound can be taken in low doses with the prevailing available supplements for grape seed extract as well as resveratrol that are also found in wine.

But he added that there seems to be some more work to be done in order to comprehend the mechanism behind the anti-cancer properties of the grape extract together with the other colourful fruits and vegetables. More study would be focused in discovering the precise anti-cancer compounds as well as enhanced understanding on how those compounds seem to work synergistically in creating much more effective colon-cancer prevention and treatment approaches.

Wednesday, 28 June 2017

Apollo Mission to Drive Therapeutic Innovation

Therapeutic Innovation
Image Credit:Taema

Age of Mounting Biomedical Invention


 Stimulations of a rebellion has given way through hundreds of laboratories which are aiming to cause new medicines that will be faster with less disappointments. This is being led by three UK universities together with three global pharmaceutical corporations. A four strong team has over the past year indulged in hundred meetings with scientist at three UK universities and towards the end of this year would probably tend to have another hundreds of such meetings.

They have been storing the maximum complete sense of what tends to occur at the bench across the three UK universities namely Cambridge, Imperial College London and University College London – UCL, which anyone had ever accumulated. Their task is to detect research which seems to have the greatest possibility of making it all the way through in being a new medicine and thereafter in supporting it to occur.

The team headed by Dr Richard Butt has explained that the drive behind their meetings are that they tend to live in an age of rapidly mounting biomedical invention, an age where the development of new medicine needs to be at an all-time high though the number of new drugs that are developed seems to be largely static.

 Valley of Death


  The time between getting promising results in an academic lab, in drug discovery, and receiving real interest from an investor or pharmaceutical corporation seems to be known as the `Valley of Death’ and with a good reason. Discerning as well as developing likely new medicines needs not only money but also knowledge together with quick delivery of industrial-kind science.

Several of the drug patients tend to succumb along the way before it is known whether they have fulfilled an unmet remedial requirement. The tech transfer offices – TTOs of Cambridge, Imperial College and UCL, had joined forces with three global pharmaceutical corporations, AstraZeneca (AZ) GSK and Johnson & Johnson, in January 2016, to develop a £40m collaboration known as Apollo Therapeutics.

According to Butt, their focus was in streamlining the academia-to-industry pipeline by discovering the best translatable science funding it fast and running the right development programme in making it appealing to industry. Apollo in consequence, tends to focus in maximising the opportunity wherein a probable drug would be developed from emerging basic science on investment of a state-of-the-art drug discovery programme which pharma company would find it appealing to license.

  Apollo Approach – New & Revolutionary


  Dr Iain Thomas, head of Life Sciences of Cambridge Enterprise – Cambridge’s TTP has commented that the Apollo approach is completely new and revolutionary. One could say that Apollo is building reassurance and the hardest part of the job at Cambridge Enterprise is selling good technology to pharma.

It relates to the psychology of buying and people do not tend to purchase complicated stuff with plenty of risks without much scrutiny. Guarantee tends to come in from being engaged with an opportunity for a long time. Partnership and engagement seems to be at the heart of the Apollo model.

Initially, Butt’s team spoke to the academics and TTOs of the universities in recognizing thrilling predictions before taking some of the ideas to the wider team of investors, comprising of the three companies together with the TTOs. He commented that as scientists, they would always be happy in spending time engaging in discussion with any academic regarding their job. He added that as drug discoverers, they had been very particular on what to take forward. They have filtered aggressively to maximise the opportunity of success.

  Goal – Finding New Medicines for Patients


  Apollo and the academics would work together, once a project has been designated for investment, to develop the discovery to a phase which will be appealing to a company to license and then take it ahead. This labour could occur in the laboratory of academic or in one of the Pharma Corporation or in a contract company. Moreover it could also take place at the Milner Therapeutics Institute, research laboratories which would open on the Cambridge Biomedical Campus towards 2018 devoted to adopting close combined connections between academia and industry.

Dr Ian Tomlinson, Chair of Apollo had informed that the significant is bringing together the skill sets, philosophies together with expertise of those who discover with those who know what to do with that discovery and that they are all motivated by the goal of finding new medicines for patients.

 He further added that the conventional pipeline functions thus – an academic does some great science, takes it as far as they are capable to within the limits of the lab and thereafter if they need to take it further, it either forms a spin-out or licenses to pharma.

 This tends to have its place though it would take time and is expensive. If the team of Richard tends to bring the investment team with a good idea, Apollo could fund it and be working with the academic within a few weeks.

  Drug Improvement Programme


  Amidst the Butt and his three colleagues they have more than 60 years of experience in the pharma industry. He informed that they saw the boom of the late 80s/early 90s of drug approvals and then genomics, high-throughput screening together with a seeming wealth of targets led to the mind-set of `we can scale this success’ – if we run thrice more projects and be three times more successful.

The basic biology nearly ended to matter. Projects seem to run which should not have been and R&D costs mounted though the output of new drugs flat-lined or even dropped. His team has already recognized eight projects all over the three universities to receive Apollo subsidy.

The first to be supported originated from a 20-year search by Dr Ravi Mahadeva at Cambridge’s Department of Medicine to treat Alpha-1 trypsin deficiency – AATD, for a small molecule drug. AAT is said to be a protein which usually protects the lungs and in AATD, a single genetic mutation causes it to aggregate in the liver. The outcome affects the liver and lungs are disabling leading to serious problems.

Presently there is no effective long-term treatment for this ailment. Apollo funds, for professor Randall Johnson, has meant that his research in Cambridge’s Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience tends to have been constant effortlessly through a drug improvement programme without the need of stop-start of waiting for subsidy, licensing or creation of a spin-out.

Wednesday, 21 June 2017

Science without borders is needed to solve the mystery of Alzheimer’s disease

Alzheimer’s disease
Alzheimer’s Disease & Related Disorders

Unpublished research at Symposium developed to fast-track prevention, together with treatment as well as cure for the unbearable disease affecting 1 in 3 seniors has been shared by 16 of the top Alzheimer’s scientists of the world.

Dean of the Keck School of Medicine of USC, Rohit Varma had welcomed the elite group to the 4th annual Zilkha symposium on Alzheimer Disease & Related Disorders. Varma had stated that he is delighted to host this conference that tends to bring together the best and the brightest physician-scientists from across the globe for studying new, basic, translational as well as clinical efforts in the field of Alzheimer’s and related neurodegenerative disorders.

He expects that with their wisdom, insight together with hard work they would put an end to the menace of this disease. Rudolph Tanzi of Harvard University, David Holtzman – Washington University, John Trojanowski and Virginia Man-Yee Lee - University of Pennsylvania, Kaj Blennow – University of Gothenburg in Sweden, Roger Nitsche – University of Zurich, Christer Betsholtz – Uppsala Universitet in Sweden and Ronald Petersen – Mayo Clinic college of Medicine are said to be some of the researchers that have joined Keck School of Medicine scientists Berislav Zlokovic and Paul Aisen in presenting their new discoveries.

Symptoms – 15 Years After Sticky Amyloid Proteins – Dull the Brain

According to Aisen, director of the USC Alzheimer’s Therapeutic Research Institute that leads eight clinical trials on the disease, states that the symptoms of Alzheimer’s tends to appear around 15 years after sticky amyloid proteins seem to dull the brain.

Quoting data from the on-going Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative study, Aisen had informed that around 80% of the participants having amyloid deposits in their brain but no symptoms of Alzheimer’s have developed symptoms of the disease within the next nine years.

Relatively only about 20% of the people devoid of amyloid deposits had later on developed related symptoms. He further added that he was of the opinion that they needed to carry this study further till they would feel that almost everyone with elevated amyloid would progress to symptomatic AD.

 Moreover it seemed reasonable to anticipate that they tend to start the trashy of anti-amyloid, 15 years prior to the expected onset of symptoms, they would be capable of preventing the development of clinical Alzheimer’s disease. In order to the trace the development of the disease over a period of time, Aisen has been enrolling healthy individuals having no symptoms of Alzheimer’s in clinical studies.

Biomarkers in Blood

In comprehending the disease and its progress would assist in the development of a `liquid bipsy’ blood test which would bring about an insight to the doctors wherein individuals could be at high risk for Alzheimer’s. In future, once the doctors tend to identify that a patient has early build-up of amyloid, they will be capable of prescribing a drug that could destroy the same.

 Thereafter, individuals could take a drug like a BACE- inhibitor in order to prevent amyloid build-up according to Aisen. Aisen had also added that doctors will ultimately be in a position of identifying people likely to develop Alzheimer’s through biomarkers found in blood draws, which will simplify preventive treatment. Director of the Zilkha Neurogenetic Institute, Zlokovic had challenged the amyloid hypothesis of Aisen stating that amyloid is not ground zero for neurodegeneration.

Zlokovic had commented that he is a bit worried if they consider Alzheimer’s is exclusively amyloid-derived neurodegeneration. He would state that this is a very complex, multifactorial disease which is motivated by genetic, vascular and environmental factors that all can effect disease inception and progression. He further added that disease inception may or may not include amyloid at all.

Healthy Brain – Healthy Blood Vessels

He explained that according to latest studies, issues in brain circulation like subtle damage to the smallest brain vessels, capillaries, loss of cerebrovascular integrity as well as blood flow changes taking place early could be vital to disease progression and lead to amyloid and tau pathology.

Zlokovic has been performing pioneering research on how leaks in the vascular system of the brain, the blood-brain barrier, tend to cause a flow of issues, inclusive of amyloid build-up. Zlokovic had mentioned that health epidemic of the 21st century is age-linked small vessel disease of the brain. Small vessel disease is said to contribute to around 45% of all dementias all over the world including Alzheimer’s.

Zlokovic recently had installed as the Mary Hayley and Selim Zilkha Chair in Alzhemier’s Disease Research further commented that a healthy brain needs healthy blood vessels. The blood-brain barrier averts the entry into the brain of blood deprived toxic products, pathogens and cells. Over 70 USC researchers over a range of disciplines have been inspecting the health, societal as well as political effects and its implications of Alzheimer’s.

 Zlokovic had informed that they would be looking forward to hosting this symposium again the next year and that it is critical for top experts of Alzheimer’s to come together and share their unpublished discoveries, concept and state-of-the art approaches in order that scientific barriers are eliminated and all tend to work together in arresting and reversing this devastating disease.

Monday, 19 June 2017

Human Stem Cells Model the Kidney Filtration Barrier

Glomerular filtration chip devised by the human stem cells differentiation

Well, it is a relief for the ailing ones especially the kidney patients. The glomerular filtration is the new addition in terms of the kidney related diseases. The best part is that a new chip has been designed which consists of the glomerulus itself and it could bring a smile for the kidney affected persons. The therapeutic therapy has been given a new dimension post this chip manufacturing.

The kidney is one of the most important organ in our body. It is quite essential and performs a lot of functions for our body. The filtering of blood is the most important one and also helps in removing waste elements via urine. It retains the elements in the form of proteins in our body which is beneficial for the circulation of blood and proper metabolism of the body.

THE STRUCTURE

The main thing that helps in achieving all the above mentioned activities is none other than the glomerulus itself. There is a membrane which is thin and separates the matrix. It filters the material. The researches go on in every field. The medical field is no exception. We had recently some of the greatest discoveries in the medical arena. It has really got advanced and helped to cut down the mortality rate by a huge margin by inventing new drugs or machines.

This has been possible with the combination of science and technology which has revolutionised the world. The stem cells were under the microscope for a long time which can convert to podocytes. These can be really very helpful for the medical field. Well, the glomerular filtration was not successful when podocytes were taken into consideration in order to culture cells.

THE SOLUTION

Where there is a way, there is a will. Well, certainly there is and nothing is impossible in this digital world. The solution was figured out by the scientists and developers for the glomerular filtration. The new process is something different where the podocytes which are considered to be mature are formed by separating the stem cells of human which have been induced by pluripotent.

THE WORKING

And it works as a wonder as the success rate is close to 90 percent. Now these were embedded on a chip and a model of the glomerulus of the human as created. In this fashion, the filtration process reached a new height and all the proteins and toxic elements could be differentiated. This chip which has been developed by the researchers will play a promising role in the near future.

This will also play a key role for more research in terms of experiments and other tests. The aspect of biology will get broader and widened now a bit with the development of the glomerular filtration chip. Well, we need to have patience till the chip is finally rolled out for the treatment purposes. The differentiation is the key to develop such a chip which would save kidney patients in future.

Monday, 22 May 2017

Birth Control Made Easier: Scientists Found Sperm’s Power Switch—And a Way to Turn It Off

vasagel
The ancient birth control techniques ranging from using linen to animal bladder sheaths have evolved with time and new age discoveries. The effective and safe contraception or fertility control methods were available from the twentieth century including condoms, IUDs, birth control pills, vasectomy and tubal ligation. Scientists knew very little about the process of fertilization on a molecular level. Discovery of the crucial mechanism of the reproduction can pave the way for new fertility treatments which will eventually improve the fertility rates. Alternatively, it can lead to the production of unisex contraceptive.


In simpler words, sperms need to be kept away from eggs. But putting up a barrier is not the only way. Sperm cells are good in both swimming and drilling. The most common birth control tool is the condom. Proper use of condom actually helps in targeting the swimming portion of the process of pregnancy thereby controlling the sperm cells. But recent discoveries have shown that scientists have been able to find a way to stop the sperm cells in the drilling task. The result would be an effective treatment that would work equally for both men and women.


The sperm cells travel at a high speed to the fallopian tube from the cervix through the uterus moving their tails side to side. It swims around 24000 times of their own length of their body to reach the egg. Now the egg is covered in a thirty-micron thick protective layer known as the zona pellucida which is impossible for the five micron long headed human sperm to penetrate.

The sperm cells then turn into a direction and corkscrewing their head forward pierces through the viscous outer layers of the egg. This process is termed as the " power kick" by the scientists which means a huge amount to calcium ions are dumped into the sperm's tail. A particular enzyme on the tails of these hyperactive sperms responds to progesterone, the female sex hormone, which helps in activation of the power kick which in turn boosts the swimming speed of the sperms. It is believed that progesterone affects the progression the sperms. Scientists in a recent development introduced small electrodes that were attached to the tails of the sperm cells to record their responses to various hormones.


The power kick banks upon the Catsper despite the presence of thousands of different kinds of ion channels. When the sperm gets close to the unfertilized egg the CatSper activates to let in the calcium and encounters the progesterone. Few chemical compounds bind with the CatSper and helps in prevention of the calcium ions dump required for the power kick. There are two most promising compounds that come from plants consumed by the humans - lupeol found in the mangoes, grapes etc.


The previous male contraceptives have either failed or dropped due to its side effects. This new discovery would make a compelling pitch for drug makers. However, vasalgel is an exception here. It is a gel like barrier used to block sperms. It has passed the primate trials and has shown positive results.







Wednesday, 17 May 2017

Researchers Find New Source of Dangerous Electrical Instability in the Heart

Worldwide, at least 30 million people are living with slogans. In spite of improved treatment options, patients with pre-fibrillation still suffer from stroke, develop heart failure, and die prematurely. On the initiative of the Competence Network, and the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA), an international expert group has now developed a plan to improve the quality of the treatment of pre-slurries. The AFNET / EHRA consensus report is published today in the journal EP Europace.

 More than 70 experts from almost every continent participated in the conference and exchanged their experiences. "In view of the great diversity of health systems worldwide, the different countries can learn from each other and develop better models for the treatment of atrial fibrillation. We hope that this plan, which has been created by specialists from different parts of the world, will help to improve the treatment of squibs in Europe and the world, "said Prof. Gerhard Hindricks, President of EHRA.

Several million people in the world have unidentified and therefore untreated pre-fibrillation, combined with a high risk of stroke and death. The AFNET / EHRA Roadmap recommends the introduction of a large-scale pre-screening screening for over-65s and high-risk populations to enable early diagnosis and treatment of pre-fibrillation.

Anticoagulants (anticoagulant drugs for stroke prevention) can only be effective if taken regularly. Therefore, strategies must be defined to minimize disruption or discontinuation of anticoagulation therapy.

Enlightened patients

For a successful therapy of atrial fibrillation - the experts agree on this - all patients should be involved in the decisions about their treatment. The prerequisite for this is that the patients are well informed. In order to achieve this, the authors recommend to improve the availability of free information on pre-ventilations and associated complications and treatment options.

 Patient-friendly initiatives, such as the EHRA-developed patient website, available in five European languages, are considered to be very helpful to the inclusion of the Patients. In addition, "patient reported outcomes" should be used to capture symptoms and consequences of pre-fibrillation from the patient's perspective.

Structured treatment

Adequate treatment of pre-fibrillated patients is complex. Prof. Andreas Gotte, member of the board, said: "Such a aid of pre-fibrillation should check that all patients are offered information based therapy." Therefore, the AFNET / EHRA Plan recommends a structured approach guided by interdisciplinary teams Of care plans for all vaccine patients. Improved therapy

Several million people in the world have unidentified and therefore untreated pre-fibrillation, combined with a high risk of stroke and death. The AFNET / EHRA Roadmap recommends the introduction of a large-scale pre-screening screening for over-65s and high-risk populations to enable early diagnosis and treatment of pre-fibrillation. Anticoagulants (anticoagulant drugs for stroke prevention) can only be effective if taken regularly. Therefore, strategies must be defined to minimize disruption or discontinuation of anticoagulation therapy.

The experts recommend the development of standards with which the quality and success of the pre-flax ablation can be measured uniformly. Frequently, the rhythm disturbance is not completely eliminated by an ablation. Further studies are needed to find the best treatment for patients with presumptive relapse after ablation.

Personalized treatment

Further research is needed to better understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the pre-fibrillation. The experts propose to evaluate genetic factors, specific biomarkers, and ECG parameters to identify different subtypes of atrial fibrillation in individual patients and to develop more targeted therapies.

For example, new biomarkers or ECG information could be used to better estimate the individual risk of anticoagulation in patients with a medium or low risk of stroke. At present, it is not yet known whether these patients benefit from anticoagulation therapy or not. Prof. A. John Camm, the future president of the EHRA and co-organizers of the Fifth AFNET / EHRA Conference, concludes: "We believe that the proposed research activities can aid to hone the treatment of atrial fibrillation and the treatment for many patients around the world to improve. There is an imperative need for long-term research funding to enable the implementation of sufficiently large studies

Friday, 12 May 2017

New Model Could Speed Up Colon Cancer Research

MIT

Colon cancer buster

Gene editing science has been an area of growth for genetic engineers and researchers across the globe. With progressing research studies, newer treatment options are being devised and successfully delivered. One such research conducted by MIT researchers have used new gene-editing systems to generate colon tumors, resembling human tumors. A new approach to a pre-existing method in genetic sciences. This paves the path for further investigation into knowledge about disease progression.

Metastases and detection:

The highest cause of death due to colon cancer is metastases, which is difficult to detect. The disease progression is so high, that fatality is hard to control even after various treatment procedures. A recent study by the director of Koch Institute, Tyler Jacks, uses similar CRISPR- based technology to build mouse models of the disease, revolutionizing research in the field of oncology.

Various approaches have been used for modeling cancer, one of them being the usage of cancer cell lines in lab dishes. This poses a lot of limitations. Another method used is mutations, which is then genetically engineered in the mice.

Recent studies involving CRISPR, which consists of DNA- cutting enzyme Cas9 and short RNA guide strands, which specialize in targeting specific genome sequences. Using the same method scientists can make targeted mutations, by either removing or adding genes. The genes for Cas9 are packaged into lentiviruses, which are then injected into target organs of the mice, transferred by colonoscopy.

What follows?

Gene editing makes this procedure possible. By virtue of which, after establishment of the tumor, mutations can be added or deleted, making the study process more complicated and informative. The information includes the aspects of metastases, initiation and progression of the tumor from liver to various parts of the body. This also helps in studying the pattern of metastases which again is peculiar in human colon.

The MIT team delivered organoids with a mutated form of the APC gene, which when established, were introduced in a mutated form of KRAS, commonly found in colon and many other cancers. These new approaches have cut short research time and has sped up the process of gene editing.

Implications:

Gene editing, this newest form of development in the field of oncology helps in drug testing, making it more successful. This ensures widening of treatment options. Factors such as age, metabolism, sex etc are also taken into consideration while conducting the study. This helps scientists choose best options for individual patients.

The mice are studied over a period of time to gain results, even though the study is supposed to be prolonged, various new discoveries and science have made it easier and faster. This helps in minimizing of side-effects post treatment and other health implications by three folds.

Genetic research shows a progressive growth over the years, showing immense scope and employment options. Diseases are getting detected sooner and treatment delivered on time. This in turn saves a lot of time, cost, manpower and patient care excels automatically.

Monday, 8 May 2017

Untreatable Superbug Infections on the Rise

Life-Taking Superbug is on the Go! 


With the increase in pollution, global warming, malnutrition, hybridization of vegetables and fruits the entire world is being engulfed by the vicious circle of health disorders. As per the data provided by NHS depicts, that there is a continuous increase in incurable superbug and this leads to the increase in number of sick people affected by CPE. The figures were where much less in 2002, where only 3 were heard to be affected by CPE per annum in 2002 and that has now increased to 2000 per annum. The data reveals that the life of almost every individual is at stake. The health syndromes are declining day by day with the rise in superbugs.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention based in US has suggested that 40 to 50 % of the patients inflicted by CPE infection in blood loses their life. The figures seem to increase day by day, as the 66 NHS Trusts in England, Public Health England said that since 2009, approximately 81 number of people succumbed to this deadly CPE disease and the numbers of death are increasing day by day heading up to 2000 every year.

The matter seems to get worst in coming days as Professor Nigel Brown, who is a member of the society for General Microbiology, says that the bacteria that carries CPE is almost everywhere. He also revealed an astonishing fact to the Sky News, saying that this bacterium is very much present in our guts and some of these CPE bacteria is strong enough to completely shatter the Carbapenem antibiotic by nullifying its capacity to fight these infectious superbugs.

These bacteria are so powerful that it gets transmitted into your blood from the gut and makes you sick enough to send you to the hospital and it is so infectious that it gets transmitted from one person to another by just a minor contact and once you are inflicted by these disease they spread rapidly and overpowers your entire body attacking your blood and then it finally becomes almost next to impossible to get immediate relief from its consequences. It breaks down your metabolism and curbs down the functioning of your entire system and the final destination is the hospitals bed and if the situation is not brought under control immediately then the patient can even die.

The death and survival rates are still not clear to depict that whether the survival rates have decreases or increased, as some health institutions have still not provided the accurate figures of death and survival rates so that a conclusion can be drawn to denote who is on the winning side the deadly superbug or the advanced medical treatments.

Emily Morris, who has survived in the case of superbug infection depending on antibiotics, shares her experience and she has acclaimed this sickness to be more powerful and hence it cannot be defeated so easily and in most cases death is inevitable. So, proper measures should be taken by the health experts to save the world from this life taking bug.

Tuesday, 2 May 2017

Internet Crystal Ball Can Predict Risk of Heart Disease, Diabetes, Study Finds

Diabetes and cardiovascular disease predictions become easy with online crystal ball

Diabetes and heart disorders are now common problems to lots of people. And to cure these two diseases, many patients take medications almost regularly. Usually, we take steps, as soon as we determine any symptom of diabetes or heart-related diseases. However, now researchers have created a tool with the help of which you will be able to predict these diseases. They have introduced an online crystal ball that acts as metabolic calculator and has much power to know the possibilities of diabetes in a person. In fact, it works more precisely in compared to that of a conventional process.

Predict disease to stay safe-

The researchers of University of Florida and Virginia have invented this new system and they expect that it will allow many people to change their everyday lifestyle completely. Thus, lots of users may be able to keep away from the trouble and expenditures, which are associated with serious diseases.

In the past, cardiovascular problem, stroke and diabetes, were diagnosed, simply by having an observation at the blood pressure, cholesterol, HDL and obesity level of a person. Those, who have abnormalities, are found to have some metabolic disorder. They physicians inform them that they’ve quite higher risk of having health issues in future.

To explain something about the risk prediction, it is to be said that the physicians will be able to make out, if you may have cardiovascular issues in the coming years. Dr. Mark of UVA School has also informed that the doctors will be able to give much accurate data to the patients, who are vulnerable to the stated diseases. Thus, with more perception of the diseases, the patients also get motivation for making some adjustments.

How the calculator is different from traditional methods-

Traditional analysis is not effective to consider all the factors, like sex, race or background. It has been noted, Afro-American citizens do not show up metabolic issues in the diagnosis. However, still they have much possibility of cardiovascular syndrome and diabetes (Type 2).

But, the new crystal ball, invented recently, evaluates the usual risky issues and considers all the factors, like customs or gender. It is able to generate a comprehensible score that indicates metabolic seriousness. A research has detected that the predictions of web-based calculator are highly relevant with heart disease or diabetes issues. Another detailed study has involved thirteen thousand people for the experiment. The new tool has acted as a good predictor of diseases. The device includes scoring mechanism in order to work out the risk. All the information may be sent to doctors, who can take steps as preventive measures.

The calculator is accessible as free tool. More thorough study is needed to settle on accurate cut-off score for signifying the risk level. Though it is mainly healthcare experts, who have to use this, any person may utilize it to know about his health.

Thus, online crystal ball is a good innovation in the medical science to help many people, who have probability of experiencing diabetes and heart-oriented diseases.

Friday, 28 April 2017

High Quality Early Childhood Education has Significant Benefits

 Early Childhood
Modern daycare is characterized by process and quality orientation. In doing so, the contracts of education, education and care for each child must be guaranteed. Children's educational biographies are based on the findings of brain research in the first seven years of life. This is where the children's day-care centre comes to the fore as a preparation for school-based learning.

First, the present milieu deals with the conceptual explanation of relevant terms in the context of the elementary area. In the further course, the historical background of childcare will be discussed. The second part is devoted to the educational task of the kindergarten in the context of the latest findings of pedagogy and neurosciences. In the following, the question about the meaning and the effect of secure binding relationships for children with disabilities is presented and the findings of crib research are presented in relation to the theory of attachment. The postmodern perspective of seeing children as actively participating in their development becomes apparent in the context of the transition model. Research findings from the UK's Effective Provision of Pre-School Education (EPPE) study provide initial answers to the question of early childhood education, care and support.

The Elementary

According to Aden-Grossmann, the elementary area comprises all family-oriented pre-primary education, educational and care facilities, according to the kindergarten and comparable forms of child day care, from the age of three to the beginning of the school. It forms the lowest level of education and is characterized by an independent concept of education (elementary pedagogics). Thus, the various forms of child day care are recognized as educational institutions, but they are not fully integrated into the education system, but rather form a preliminary stage and remain associated with youth welfare.

Early childhood

The life cycle from birth to school is called early childhood. These are divided into the first six years of age (age 1), the infant (age 2 and 3) and the nursery or preschooler (age 4 to 6). Contrary to previous opinions, the knowledge that children from birth are independent subjects with specific competencies has become more and more popular today with the increasing cooperation between different disciplines (including neurobiology, pediatrics, child psychiatry and infant education). The paradigm shift in the everyday and scientific understanding is particularly noteworthy when, since the beginning of the 1990s, the concept of a "competent infant" has been developed, which is ready for learning and interacting immediately after birth. Thus neither passively nor alone to his instincts - a dominant view so far.

Until the beginning of the 21st century, further changes in the perspective of the early childhood complex have been made. In the field of early child hood education, the child has long been the focus of education and care. A trend is today's view that children in the first years of life are "people in a sensitive development phase” which is characterized by "extremely high learning ability". They need the protection of adults as well as adequate support, which encourages and accompanies them in their researcher urge. In this context, education is understood in a comprehensive sense, related to the emotional, cognitive and social development of the child.